Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 10, pp 9945–9954 | Cite as

The effect of high UV radiation exposure environment on the novel PVC polymers

  • Emad YousifEmail author
  • Dina S. Ahmed
  • Ahmed A. Ahmed
  • Ayad S. Hameed
  • Safaa H. Muhamed
  • Rahimi M. Yusop
  • Amamer Redwan
  • Salam A. Mohammed
Research Article


Although plastic induces environmental damages, almost the consumption of poly(vinyl chloride) never stops increasing. Therefore, this work abstracted by two parts, first, synthesis of Schiff bases 1–4 compounds through the reaction of amino group with appropriate aromatic aldehyde, reaction of PVC with Schiff bases compounds 1–4 in THF to form a new modified PVC-1, PVC-2, PVC-3, and PVC-4. The structures of Schiff bases 1–4 and the modified PVC-1, PVC-2, PVC-3, and PVC-4 have been characterized by different spectroscopic analyses. Second, the influence of introducing 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole as a pendent groups into PVC chain investigated on photostability rules of tests. The modified polymers photostability investigated by observing indices (ICO, Ipo, and IOH), weight loss, UV and morphological studies, and all results obtained indicated that PVC-1, PVC-2, PVC-3 and PVC-4 gave lower growth rate of ICO, IPO, and IOH through UV exposure time. The photostability are given as PVC-4 < PVC-3 < PVC-2 < PVC-1 from different mechanisms which suggested building on existence of 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole moieties in the polymer chain.


Modified PVC Films Surface modification Nucleophilic substitution 



This project is supported by the Al-Nahrain, Al-Mustansiriyah, Tikrit, Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bani Walid, and Nizwa Universities.

Author contributions

Yousif and Hameed designed the experiments. Muhamed and Ahmed analyzed and performed the experimental data. Yousif, Hameed, Ahmed, Muhamed, Yusop, and Ahmed wrote the paper. All authors discussed and improved the final text of this paper.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have conflict of interest.


  1. Ahmed DS, El-Hiti GA, Hameed AS, Yousif E, Ahmed A (2017a) New tetra-Schiff bases as efficient photostabilizers for poly(vinyl chloride). Molecules 22:1506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed DS, El-Hiti GA, Yousif E, Hameed AS (2017b) Polyphosphates as inhibitors for poly(vinyl chloride) photodegradation. Molecules 22:1849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akram E, Shaalan N, Rashad AA, Hasan A, Al-Amiery A, Yousif E (2016) Study of structural and optical properties of new films derived PVC-2-[5-phenyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-ylimino-methyl]-benzoic acid. RJPBCS 7:2836Google Scholar
  4. Ali GQ, El-Hiti GA, Tomi IHR, Haddad R, Al-Qaisi AJ, Yousif E (2016) Photostability and performance of polystyrene films containing 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol ring system Schiff bases. Molecules 21:1699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aliwi S, Najim T, Naief O (2011) Photostabilization of poly (vinyl chloride) using natural products. J Coll Edu 1:357–390Google Scholar
  6. Al-Taa’y WA, Abdulnabi MT, Yousif E (2014) The effect of NiCl2 on theoptical properties of polyvenyl alcohol films. Yanbu J Eng Sci 8:ISSN 1658–ISSN 5321Google Scholar
  7. Bicak N,Sherrington DS,Bulbul H (2001) Vinylamine polymer via chemical modification of PVC, Eur Polym J 37:801–805Google Scholar
  8. Blank S (1990) An introduction to plastics and rubbers in collection. Stud Conserv 35:53–63Google Scholar
  9. Decker C, Balandier M (1981) Photo-oxidation of poly(vinyl chloride). Polym Photochem 1:221–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ghazi D, El-Hiti GA, Yousif E, Ahmed DS, Alotaibi MH (2018) The effect of ultraviolet irradiation on the physicochemical properties of poly(vinyl chloride) films containing organotin (IV) complexes as photostabilizers. Molecules 23:254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ghoranneviss M, Shahidi S, Wiener J (2010) Surface modification of poly vinyl chloride (PVC) using low pressure argon and oxygen plasma. Plasma Sci Technol 12:204–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Haishima Y, Isama K, Hasegawa C, Yuba T, Matsuoka AA (2013) Development and biological safety evaluation of novel PVC medical devices with surface structures modified by UV irradiation to suppress plasticizer migration. J Biomed Mater Res A 101:2630–2643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Herrero M, Tiemblo P, Reyes-Labarta J, Mijangos C, Reinecke H (2002) PVC modification with new functional groups. Influence of hydrogen bonds on reactivity, stiffness and specific volume. Polymer 43:2631–2636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ismael M, Ameer B, Shaaln N, Al-Taa'y W, Hassan A, Ali M, Ahmed A, Yousif E (2016) Study on optical properties of PVC-2,5 di(2-pyrrole hydrazone) 1,3,4-thiadiazole complexes. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 7:2347–2355Google Scholar
  15. Kameda T, Grause G, Yoshioka T (2010) Chemical modification of flexible and rigid poly(vinyl chloride) by nucleophilic substitution with thiocyanate using a phase-transfer catalyst. Mater Chem Phys 124:163–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kameda T, Ono M, Grause G, Mizoguchi T, YoshiokaT (2009) Chemical modification of poly(vinyl chloride) by nucleophilic substitution. Polym Degrad Stabil 94:107–112, 2009Google Scholar
  17. Khan R, Tawakkul M, Sayeed A, Faustino P, Khan M (2012) Stability characterization, kinetics and mechanism of degradation of dantrolene in aqueous solution: effect of pH and temperature. Pharmacol Pharm 3:281–290Google Scholar
  18. Lakshmi S, Jayakrishnan A (1998) Photo-crosslinking of dithiocarbamate substituted PVC reduces plasticizer migration. Polymer 39:151–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Levin G (1984) Partial substitution of chlorine by the 3-[N-(2-pyridyl)carbamoyl]propylthio group in poly(vinyl chloride) suspended in water. Makromol Chem Rapid Commun 5:513–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liu C, Luo Y, Zhong B, Li S, Guo B, Jia D (2011) Enhancement of mechanical properties of poly(vinyl chloride) with polymethyl methacrylate-grafted halloysite nanotube. Express Polym Lett 5:591–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Marian S, Levin G (1981) Modification of polyvinylchloride in solution or suspension by nucleophilic substitution. J Appl Polym Sci 26:3295–3304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mango LA, Lenz RW (1973) Hydrogenation of unsaturated polymers with diimide. Makromol Chem 163:13–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. McCoy C, Cowley J, Gorman S, Andrews G, Jones D (2009) Reduction of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation on PVC through covalent surface attachment of fluorinated thiols. J Pharm Pharmacol 61:1163–1169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Milenkovic J, Hrenovic J, Goic-Barisic I, Tomic M, Djonlagic J, Rajic N (2014) Synergistic anti-biofouling effect of Ag-exchanged zeolite and D-tyrosine on PVC composite against the clinical isolate of Acinetobacter baumannii, Biofouling 30:965–973, 2014Google Scholar
  25. Mohammed SA, Hasan A, Al-Taa’y WA, Ahmed A, Khalaf M, Yousif E (2016) Optical properties study of new films derived from poly(vinyl chloride)-N-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-acetamide. RJPBCS 7:1064Google Scholar
  26. Okawara M, Ochiai Y (1980) In: Carraher Jr CE, Tsuda M, editors. Modification of polymers. ACS Symp Ser 12, Washington DC, p. 45Google Scholar
  27. Rabek J, Ranby B (1975) Photodegradation, photooxidation, and photostabilization of polymer. John Wiley, New York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  28. Rabie ST, Ahmed AE, Sabaa MW, Abd El-Ghaffar MA (2013) Maleic diamides as photostabilizers for polystyrene. J Ind Eng Chem 19:1869–1878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Reyes-Labarta J, Herrero M, Tiemblo P, Mijangos C, Reinecke H (2003) Wet chemical surface modification of plasticized PVC. Characterization by FTIR-ATR and Raman microscopy. Polymer 44:2263–2269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sabaa M, Oraby E, Abdel Naby A, Mohamed R (2006) N-phenyl-3-substituted 5-pyrazolone derivatives as organic stabilizers for rigid poly(vinyl chloride) against photodegradation. J App Polym Sci 101:1543–1555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sacristán J, Reinecke H, Mijangos C (2000) Surface modification of PVC films in solvent–non-solvent mixtures. Polymer 41:5577–5582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Takeishi M, Okawara M (1970) Reaction of poly(vinyl chloride) containing azide groups. J Polym Sci Polym Lett Ed 8:829–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Valko L, Klein E, Kovaˇrík P, Bleha T, Šimon P (2001) Kinetic study of thermal dehydrochlorination of poly(vinyl chloride) in the presence of oxygen: III. Statistical thermodynamic interpretation of the oxygen catalytic activity. Eur Polym J 37:1123–1133Google Scholar
  34. Winslow F, Hellman M, Matrayek W, Stills SM (1966) Autoxidation of semicrystalline polyethylene. J Polym Eng Sci 6:237Google Scholar
  35. Yousif E, El-Hiti GA, Hussain Z, Altaie A (2015) Viscoelastic, spectroscopic and microscopic study of the photo irradiation effect on the stability of PVC in the presence of sulfamethoxazole Schiff’s bases. Polymers 7:2190–2204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Yousif E, Ahmed DS, El-Hiti GA, Alotaibi MH, Hashim H, Hameed AS, Ahmed A (2018) Fabrication of novel ball-like polystyrene films containing Schiff base microspheres as photostabilizers. Polymers 10:1185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zhang Z, Gilles Sèbe G, Xiaosong Wang X, Kam C, Tam KC (2018) UV-absorbing cellulose nanocrystals as functional reinforcing fillers in poly(vinyl chloride) films. ACS Appl Nano Mater 1:632–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, College of ScienceAl-Nahrain UniversityBaghdadIraq
  2. 2.Department of Medical Instrumentation EngineeringAl-Mansour University CollegeBaghdadIraq
  3. 3.Polymer Research Unit, College of ScienceAl- Mustansiriyah UniversityBaghdadIraq
  4. 4.Department of Chemistry, College of ScienceTikrit UniversityTikritIraq
  5. 5.School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and TechnologyUniversity Kebangsaan MalaysiaBangiMalaysia
  6. 6.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceBani Walid UniversityBani WalidLibya
  7. 7.Department of Chemical and Petrochemical Engineering, College of Engineering and ArchitectureUniversity of NizwaNizwaSultanate of Oman

Personalised recommendations