Previous, current, and cumulative dose effect of waterpipe smoking on LDL and total cholesterol
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The popularity of waterpipe smoking is dramatically increasing in Lebanon, reaching 36.9%, the highest among countries in the region. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have assessed the impact of waterpipe smoking on lipid levels in the Lebanese population. Therefore, the objective of the study was to evaluate the correlation between waterpipe smoking and LDL-C and total cholesterol levels in exclusive Lebanese waterpipe smokers compared to non-smokers. This cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2016 and February 2017, enrolling 308 patients (156 non-smokers and 147 waterpipe smokers) from four laboratories. Current and previous WS (beta = 66.64 and beta = 71.49) were significantly associated with higher LDL scores. Current WS was significantly associated with and total cholesterol levels (beta = 34.12). Cumulative WS (number of waterpipes per week × duration in years) was significantly associated with higher LDL-C and total cholesterol levels respectively (p < 0.001 for all 3 variables). The university level of education (beta = 8.89) and current alcohol drinking (beta = 8.81) were significantly associated with higher LDL scores. Our study demonstrated an association between previous or current waterpipe smoking and lipid level. Future research are needed to detect the direct cause of the relation between waterpipe smoking and CVD. Concerned authorities should set up awareness campaigns to increase alertness on dangers of WS and dependence, and encourage these young adults to embrace health-promoting behaviors.
KeywordsWaterpipe LDL-C Total cholesterol Lebanon
Low-density lipoproteins cholesterol
Beirut Distress Scale 22
Food frequency questionnaire
Compliance with ethical standards
The Lebanese University Review Board has approved the study protocol based on the fact that it protects patients’ anonymity and confidentiality. A written informed consent was signed by those who approved to participate in the study.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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