Poor removal of many pharmaceuticals and personal care products in sewage treatment plants leads to their discharge into the receiving waters, where they may cause negative effects for aquatic environment and organisms. In this study, electrochemical removal process has been used as alternative method for removal of mefenamic acid (MEF). For our knowledge, removal of MEF using electrochemical process has not been reported yet. Effects of initial concentration of mefenamic acid, sodium chloride (NaCl), and applied voltage were evaluated for improvement of the efficiency of electrochemical treatment process and to understand how much electric energy was consumed in this process. Removal percentage (R%) was ranged between 44 and 97%, depending on the operating parameters except for 0.1 g NaCl which was 9.1%. Consumption energy was 0.224 Wh/mg after 50 min at 2 mg/L of mefenamic acid, 0.5 g NaCl, and 5 V. High consumption energy (0.433 Wh/mg) was observed using high applied voltage of 7 V. Investigation and elucidation of the transformation products were provided by Bruker software dataAnalysis using liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry. Seven chlorinated and two non-chlorinated transformation products were investigated after 20 min of electrochemical treatment. However, all transformation products (TPs) were eliminated after 140 min. For the assessment of the toxicity, it was impacted by the formation of transformation products especially between 20 and 60 min then the inhibition percentage of E. coli bacteria was decreased after 80 min to be the lowest value.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
The Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) and the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia (MOHE) funded this research under Grant Nos. 4 J284 and 4F807. Furthermore, this work was also financial supported under grant Professional Development Research University (PDRU) Grant No: 04E52.
Al-Odaini NA, Zakaria MP, Yaziz MI, Surif S (2010) Multi-residue analytical method for human pharmaceuticals and synthetic hormones in river water and sewage effluents by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1217:6791–6806. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2010.08.033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Al-Qaim FF, Mussa ZH, Yuzir A (2018b) Development and validation of a comprehensive solid-phase extraction method followed by LC-TOF/MS for the analysis of eighteen pharmaceuticals in influent and effluent of sewage treatment plants. Anal Bioanal Chem 410:4829–4846. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-018-1120-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heli H, Jabbari A, Majdi S, Mahjoub M, Moosavi-Movahedi AA, Sheibani S (2009) Electrooxidation and determination of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on nanoparticles of Ni–curcumin-complex-modified electrode. J Solid State Elect 13:1951–1958. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10008-008-0758-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mussa ZH, Al-Qaim FF, Othman MR, Abdullah MP (2016) Removal of simvastatin from aqueous solution by electrochemical process using graphite-PVC as anode: a case study of evaluation the toxicity, kinetics and chlorinated by-products. J Environ Chem Eng 4:3338–3347. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2016.07.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar