Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 10, pp 10319–10332 | Cite as

Investigation on the use of plastic pyrolysis oil as alternate fuel in a direct injection diesel engine with titanium oxide nanoadditive

  • Sachuthananthan BharathyEmail author
  • Balaji Gnanasikamani
  • Krupakaran Radhakrishnan Lawrence
Research Article


The challenges in handling of waste plastics, shortage and price rise of petro fuels may be dealt by producing fuel from waste plastics. A trial has been attempted here to assess the change in properties of PPO (plastic pyrolysis oil) by blending with TiO2 nanoparticles and also to assess the power output and emission behaviour of a mono cylinder CI engine operating on PPO added with the above mentioned additive. Initially, the PPO was produced from the discarded waste plastics through the pyrolysis process by thermal cracking. Later, the nanoparticles were dispersed on mass fraction into the PPO using a binding agent with a homogenizer and ultrasonicator. Measurements were done to bring out the change in physiochemical properties of TiO2-added PPO. Tests were conducted on a diesel engine using diesel, PPO, PPO + 25 ppm TiO2, PPO + 50 ppm TiO2, PPO + 75 ppm TiO2 and PPO + 100 ppm TiO2 fuel samples. The output reveals that the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of PPO with 50 ppm TiO2 sample combination increased by 2.1% when compared to neat PPO at maximum load situation. The CO, HC and smoke pollutants dropped considerably due to the blending of 50 ppm TiO2 to PPO when compared to the other fuel combinations.


Plastic pyrolysis oil Additive Performance Emission investigation 



titanium dioxide


titanium oxide nanoparticle


energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays


plastic pyrolysis oil


nitrogen oxides


unburnt hydrocarbon




carbon dioxide


monoxide of carbon


brake thermal efficiency


brake specific fuel consumption




polyvinyl chloride






compression ignition


spark ignition


aluminium oxide


waste plastic oil


copper sulphate


Bharat standard


parts per million


Bosch smoke unit


American Society of Testing Materials


direct injection compression ignition


X-ray diffraction


hydrophilic liphophilic balance


scanning electron microscopic


crank angle before TDC


heat release rate


exhaust gas temperature


pungam oil methyl ester


direct injection


field electron scanning electron microscopic


energy-dispersive spectroscopy



The authors extend their sincere thanks to the top office bearers of SVEC and SRMIST for extending us the necessary facilities to execute this investigation.


This project was not funded by any government, private, public or any other non-governmental organization.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sree Vidyanikethan Engineering CollegeTirupatiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringSRM Institute of Science and TechnologyChennaiIndia

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