Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 9, pp 9184–9192 | Cite as

Degradation of cefradine in alga-containing water environment: a mechanism and kinetic study

  • Ruixue Jiang
  • Yaru Wei
  • Jiayu Sun
  • Jiaqin Wang
  • Zhilin Zhao
  • Yifei Liu
  • Xiaochen LiEmail author
  • Jiashun CaoEmail author
Research Article


Large quantities of antibiotics are manufactured, used, and eventually discharged into alga-containing water environment as prototypes, by-products, or transformation products. Different activities of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii toward cefradine (CFD) were studied, and the results indicated that CFD is resistant (removal rate of 5.45–14.72%) in simulated natural water environment. Cefradine was mainly removed by hydrolysis, adsorption, desorption, photodecarboxylation, and photoisomerization. The effects of C. reinhardtii density, initial solution pH, and different light sources on CFD removal efficiency were investigated. The optimum conditions occurred at a density of algae 10 × 104 cells/mL, a solution pH of 9.0, and the ultraviolet (UV) light. Additionally, the removal kinetics under 16 different conditions was explored. The results showed that the removal of CFD fits well with a pseudo-first-order kinetic, and the half-life times are from 0.8 to 261.6 days. This study summarizes the CFD removal mechanisms in alga-containing water environment, highlights the important role played by light irradiation in eliminating CFD, and obtains the important kinetic data on CFD removal.


Hydrolysis Adsorption Photodegradation Antibiotic Algae Kinetics 


Funding information

This study was co-funded by the Open Foundation of Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Hohai University (No. 2015004), the Shandong Province Natural Science Foundation of China (No. ZR2016EEP16), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41771502 and No. 51579072).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ruixue Jiang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yaru Wei
    • 2
  • Jiayu Sun
    • 2
  • Jiaqin Wang
    • 3
  • Zhilin Zhao
    • 2
  • Yifei Liu
    • 2
  • Xiaochen Li
    • 2
    Email author
  • Jiashun Cao
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, College of EnvironmentHohai UniversityNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.College of Water Conservancy and Civil EngineeringShandong Agricultural UniversityTai’anPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Urban Construction and Environmental EngineeringChongqing UniversityChongqingPeople’s Republic of China

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