Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 8, pp 8069–8079 | Cite as

Combustion, performance, and emissions of a compression ignition engine using Pongamia biodiesel and bioethanol

  • Pijakala Dinesha
  • Shiva KumarEmail author
  • Marc A. Rosen
Research Article


Concerns over the depletion of conventional fuels have increased interest in new renewable energy sources like alcohol- and vegetable-based oils. Major drawbacks of using esters of vegetable oils, known as biodiesel, include reduced engine performance and increased emissions of oxides of nitrogen. In the present study, the effects of ethanol on biodiesel and mineral diesel blends in a diesel engine are experimentally investigated. The ethanol is produced from cashew apple juice by fermentation. Experiments are conducted using B20 Pongamia biodiesel with ethanol in proportions of 5, 7.5, and 10% by volume at varying load conditions. The results indicate that a B20 biodiesel blend with 7.5% ethanol yields a higher brake thermal efficiency and lower brake-specific energy consumption than pure B20 (20% biodiesel + 80% diesel), as well as significantly reduced emissions such as oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and smoke.


Biodiesel Bioethanol Combustion Compression ignition engine Performance 

Abbreviations and nomenclature


Heat transfer surface area of combustion chamber (m2)


Cylinder bore diameter (m)


20% Pongamia biodiesel + 80% diesel (by volume %)


20% Pongamia biodiesel + 5% ethanol + 75% diesel (by volume %)


20% Pongamia biodiesel + 7.5% ethanol + 72.5% diesel (by volume %)


20% Pongamia biodiesel + 10% ethanol +7 0% diesel (by volume %)


Brake-specific energy consumption (kJ/kWh)


Brake-specific fuel consumption (kg/kWh)


Brake thermal efficiency (%)


Specific heat at constant volume (J/kg K)


Compression ignition


Gross heat release rate (J/deg. CA)


Net heat release rate (J/deg. CA)


Heat transfer rate to cylinder wall (J/deg. CA)


Heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 K)


Hartridge smoke unit


Mass of fluid (kg)


Pressure (bar)


Characteristic gas constant (J/kg K)


Reynolds number


Mean gas temperature (K)


Top dead center


Mean cylinder wall temperature (K)


Internal energy (J)


Volume (m3)


Concentration of carbon monoxide (%vol)


Concentration of hydrocarbons (ppm)


Concentration of oxides of nitrogen (ppm)


Crank angle (deg.)


Ratio of specific heats


Stefan-Boltzmann constant (Wm−2 K−4)


Density (kg/m3)


Dynamic viscosity (kg/m s−1)


Gas thermal conductivity (W/mK)



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing EngineeringManipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Academy of Higher EducationManipalIndia
  2. 2.Faculty of Engineering and Applied ScienceUniversity of Ontario Institute of TechnologyOshawaCanada

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