High efficiency inactivation of microalgae in ballast water by a new proposed dual-wave UV-photocatalysis system (UVA/UVC-TiO2)
- 199 Downloads
A new synergistic method was developed to inactivate marine microalgae using combined longwave ultraviolet (UVA) and shortwave ultraviolet (UVC)-photocatalysis (UVA/UVC-TiO2) technology. Five kinds of representative marine microalgae in three phyla were used as inactivating targets to examine the inactivation effect. Compared with the photocatalytic systems using UVA or UVC alone as the light source, the algae inactivation ratio in the newly developed system increased by 0.31 log or 0.19 log, and the chlorophyll a removal rate increased by 17.5% or 9.7%, respectively. Total suspended solids (TSS) of the seawater did not cause remarkable impact on the inactivation process, and the increase of UV radiation intensity improved the treatment effect significantly. Further, UVA/UVC-TiO2 treatment causes irreversible damage to microalgae cell membrane. The content of lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) increased rapidly within a short period of time, and a large number of proteins leaked out. The results of this study indicated that UVA/UVC-TiO2 was an effective method to solve the challenge of efficient inactivation of plankton in ballast water containing a high density of suspended matter.
KeywordsBallast water Microalgae Longwave ultraviolet Shortwave ultraviolet Photocatalysis
This research was financially supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFC1404605), the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51579049 and 51509044), and the High Tech Ship Program.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Akram AC, Noman S, Moniri-Javid R, Gizicki JP, Reed EA, Singh SB, Basu AS, Banno F, Fujimoto M, Ram JL (2015) Development of an automated ballast water treatment verification system utilizing fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis as a measure of treatment efficacy. Water Res 70(1):404–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- American Public Health Association (1998) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, twentieth ed. American Water Works Association; Water Pollution Control Federation, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- Cebi S, Celik M (2008) Assessment of technology options for ballast water treatment onboard merchant ships based on information axioms under fuzzy environment. In: Xia GP, Deng XQ (eds) Proceedings of the 38th international conference on computers and industrial engineering. Curran Associates Inc., Beijing, pp 652–657Google Scholar
- Chen C, Meng XY, Bai MD, Sun J, Meng FP (2014. Treatment system of ballast water in oceanic ships using hydroxyl radical (•OH) based on strong electric-field discharge. High Voltage Engineering 40(7):2238–2244Google Scholar
- Ding CS, Qin SL, Zheng YF, Miao J, Fu J (2010) Preparation and characterization of immobilized TiO2 and its photocatalytic activities. J China Univ Min Technol 39(3):431–436Google Scholar
- Du H, Zhang XF, Zhang ZT et al (2016) Input characteristics and risk analysis of ballast water in entry ships at China’s offshore sea area. Mar Sci Bull 35(1):112–120Google Scholar
- Liao XS, Wang X, Zhao KH, Zhou M (2007) Study on the influence of cyanobacterial growth by UV-C photocatalytic oxidation with Nanometric TiO2. J Wuhan Botan Res 25:457–461Google Scholar
- Maness PC, Smolinski S, Blake DM, Huang Z, Wolfrum EJ, Jacoby WA (1999) Bactericidal activity of photocatalytic TiO2 reaction: toward an understanding of its killing mechanism. Appl Environ Microbiol 65(9):4094–4098Google Scholar
- United States Environmental Protection Agency (2010) Environmental technology verification program (ETV) generic protocol for the verification of ballast water treatment technology, version version 5.1, Report number EPA/600/R-10/146. Washington, DC, USAGoogle Scholar