Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 8, pp 7960–7968 | Cite as

Toxicological impact of oxyfluorfen 24% herbicide on the reproductive system, antioxidant enzymes, and endocrine disruption of Biomphalaria alexandrina (Ehrenberg, 1831) snails

  • Amina Mohamed IbrahimEmail author
  • Dawlat A. Sayed
Research Article


Oxyfluorfen (Goal 24%EC) herbicide is widely used in agriculture for weed control. Biomphalaria alexandrina snails can be used as bioindicator of the chemical pollution in the aquatic environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the molluscicidal activity of this herbicide on Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and how it affected its biological system. The present study revealed a molluscicidal effect of oxyfluorfen 24%EC on these snails at LC50 5.9 mg/l. After exposure of snails to the sub-lethal concentrations (LC0, LC10, or LC25) of this herbicide, the survival rates, reproductive rate (R0), and fecundity (Mx) of adult B. alexandrina snails were significantly decreased in comparison with the control group. Also, levels of testosterone and estradiol were decreased significantly. It caused alterations in the antioxidant system, where exposure to sub-lethal concentration of this herbicide caused significant increases in levels of lipid peroxide malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), while it significantly decreased glutathione transferase (GST). Histopathological changes in the digestive gland included severe damage in the digestive cells, where, they lost their tips and some were degenerated, while the secretory cells increased in number. Regarding the hermaphrodite gland, there were losses of the connective tissues, irregular sperms, and the eggs degenerated. These findings concluded that B. alexandrina snails can be used as a bioindicator for pollution with pesticide in the aquatic environment.


Oxyfluorfen 24%EC Biomphalaria alexandrina Reproductive rate Oxidative stress Endocrine disruptor Histology 


Compliance with ethical standards

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental Research and Medical Malacology DepartmentTheodor Bilharz Research InstituteGizaEgypt
  2. 2.Zoology department, Faculty of ScienceCairo UniversityGizaEgypt

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