Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 8, pp 8080–8086 | Cite as

Influence of Spirulina platensis and ascorbic acid on amikacin-induced nephrotoxicity in rabbits

  • Mohamed M. Abdel-DaimEmail author
  • Amira Ahmed
  • Hira Ijaz
  • Abdelrahman Ibrahim AbushoukEmail author
  • Hussien Ahmed
  • Ahmed Negida
  • Lotfi Aleya
  • Simona G. Bungau
Research Article


The current study was performed to investigate the nephroprotective efficacy of Spirulina platensis (SP) and the possible benefits of combining SP and ascorbic acid (AA) in protecting against amikacin (AMK)-induced nephrotoxicity in rabbits. Forty-two male New Zealand rabbits were allocated to seven equal groups, receiving (I) normal saline as negative controls, (II) oral SP (500 mg/kg body weight), (III) oral AA (20 mg/kg bw), (IV) intramuscular AMK injection (100 mg/kg bw), (V) AMK plus SP, (VI) AMK plus AA, or (VII) AMK plus SP and AA at the aforementioned doses. The treatments were given once/day for 7 days. Data analysis showed that in comparison to the control group, AMK-intoxicated rabbits showed significant increases (p ≤ 0.05) in serum concentrations of creatinine, uric acid, and urea, as well as renal tissue concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], malondialdehyde [MDA], and nitric oxide [NO]. Moreover, significant (p ≤ 0.05) reductions in renal glutathione concentration, antioxidant enzymatic activities (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase), and total antioxidant capacity were noted following AMK intoxication. Treatment by SP ameliorated most of the aforementioned AMK-induced alterations. Although treatment with AA significantly reduced the renal tissue MDA, NO, and TNF-α concentrations, it was not associated with significant ameliorations of AMK-induced changes in the serum concentrations of renal function markers or renal tissue antioxidant parameters. The nephroprotective effects of SP-AA combination were more potent than SP alone in several parameters. In conclusion, SP alone or in combination with AA minimized the nephrotoxic effects of AMK through their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.


Amikacin Ascorbic acid Nephrotoxicity Rabbit Spirulina platensis 



ascorbic acid






glutathione peroxidase


reduced glutathione




nitric oxide


Spirulina platensis


superoxide dismutase


total antioxidant capacity


Compliance with ethical standards

All animal care procedures were performed following the guidelines of the European Communities Council Directive (86/609/EEC) and were approved by the local ethical research committee at Suez Canal University (Ismailia, Egypt).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineSuez Canal UniversityIsmailiaEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Poultry and Rabbit Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineSuez Canal UniversityIsmailiaEgypt
  3. 3.Department of PharmacyUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  4. 4.Faculty of MedicineAin Shams UniversityCairoEgypt
  5. 5.Faculty of MedicineZagazig UniversityEl-SharkiaEgypt
  6. 6.Chrono-Environnement Laboratory, UMR CNRS 6249Bourgogne Franche-Comté UniversityBesançon CedexFrance
  7. 7.Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and PharmacyUniversity of OradeaOradeaRomania

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