Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 9, pp 8885–8894 | Cite as

Burden of disease for workers attributable to exposure through inhalation of PPAHs in RSPM from cooking fumes

  • Anubha GoelEmail author
  • Deepshikha Ola
  • Anitha V. Veetil
Research Article


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), some of which are classified as possible carcinogens (WHO), have been detected in cooking fumes in considerable amounts. Distribution of 24 PAHs on varying particle sizes was analyzed in cooking emission. Analysis of cooking fumes from vegetarian and non-vegetarian food was carried out separately in the kitchen of a hostel mess in IIT Kanpur during November 2012 and February 2013. Respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAHs) showed a similar sequence regarding concentration observed in vegetarian and non-vegetarian food. PAHs with carcinogenic potential was detected and quantified mostly in the fine particles. Total PAH concentrations in the fine and ultrafine ranges together accounted for > 90% of the total carcinogenic PAHs, highlighting them as primary carriers of PAHs rather than coarser particles. Benzo [a] pyrene (B [a]P) levels contribute > 70% to total carcinogenic potential and > 60%, to mutagenic potential, respectively. The total toxicity impact on the workers due to the PAHs emitted from cooking fumes was 3.374 × 10−10 DALYs, with B [a] P contributing the most (> 70%) despite its low concentration. Exposure to cooking fumes especially for people involved in this activity on a daily basis (chefs, hostel mess workers, among others) raises health concerns. An extensive examination of impacts due to exposure to emissions in both particle and gas phase on a long-term basis is required.


Cooking fumes Food type Size-segregated Respirable suspended particulate matter Particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Carcinogenic Disability adjusted life years 



The support and co-operation of the mess workers during sample collection are gratefully acknowledged.

Supplementary material

11356_2019_4242_MOESM1_ESM.docx (98 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 97 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology KanpurKanpurIndia
  2. 2.Atmospheric Particle Technology Lab (APTL) at Center for Environmental Science and Engineering (CESE)IIT KanpurKanpurIndia

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