Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 9, pp 8992–9004 | Cite as

A durability study of a compression ignition engine operating with Thumba (Citrullus colocyntis) vegetable oil

  • Narayan Lal JainEmail author
  • Shyam Lal Soni
  • M. P. Poonia
  • Dilip Sharma
  • Anmesh K Srivastava
  • Hardik Jain
Research Article


Vegetable oils are found suitable alternate of diesel fuel as per the results of short-run studies. Long-run studies with vegetable oil as a fuel pointed out the problems related to wear and maintenance of the engine. A single cylinder, variable compression ratio diesel engine was tested for 512 h (32 cycles of 16 h per day) to investigate longevity implications of fueling Thumba vegetable oil. Results of the study revealed that a very little damage was observed over the running surface of the cylinder liner, piston rings, valves, and valve seats. Wear in the piston outer diameter was observed to be 13 to 30 microns. Cylinder wear was about 80 microns. The closed gap in the oil piston ring increased up to 200 microns. Heavy carbon deposition was found on different internal parts of the engine, which indicates poor combustion of fuel. Amount of copper (66 mg/kg) and silicon (112 mg/kg) dissolved in the lubricating oil was found more than permissible limits (Cu 50 mg/kg, Si 25 mg/kg), after 450-h engine test run. But all the dissolve materials remain in allowable limits when the durability test conducted with diesel. Smoke, CO, HC, and NOX emissions were found to increase initially then decrease in the further engine running hours. But these emissions were found inferior to the engine emissions fueled with diesel in all the running hours. CO2 emissions were found superior throughout the test with the preheated T20 Thumba oil blend than diesel. The maximum reduction in the viscosity of the lubricating oil, during endurance testing, was found 60 centipoises but it was found 25 centipoises when the test conducted with diesel.


Thumba oil Wear analysis Straight vegetable oil Variable compression ratio Compression ignition 



The authors acknowledge the assistance of Ramesh Chand Meena, Mahaveer Singh, and Kulal Singh, staff members of I.C. Engine Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, MNIT, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. The authors also acknowledge the suggestions and help of Rajesh Chedwal and Dheeraj Johar, research scholars of MNIT, Jaipur.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Narayan Lal Jain
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shyam Lal Soni
    • 1
  • M. P. Poonia
    • 2
  • Dilip Sharma
    • 1
  • Anmesh K Srivastava
    • 1
  • Hardik Jain
    • 3
  1. 1.Malaviya National Institute of TechnologyJaipurIndia
  2. 2.AICTEDelhiIndia
  3. 3.Vivekananda Institute of Technology (East)JaipurIndia

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