H3PO4-activated carbons produced from açai stones and Brazil nut shells: removal of basic blue 26 dye from aqueous solutions by adsorption

  • Thielle Nayara Vieira de Souza
  • Melissa Gurgel Adeodato Vieira
  • Meuris Gurgel Carlos da Silva
  • Davi do Socorro Barros Brasil
  • Samira Maria Leão de CarvalhoEmail author
Alternative Adsorbent Materials for Application in Processes Industrial


The adsorption characteristics of C.I. basic blue 26 (BB26) from aqueous solutions onto H3PO4-activated carbons (ACs) produced from açai stones (Euterpe oleracea Martius) and Brazil nut shells (Bertholletia excelsa H. B. K) were investigated in a batch system. The ACs were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, N2 adsorption at 77 K, mercury porosimetry, and acidity/basicity analysis. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order kinetic models and intraparticle diffusion model were used for the kinetic interpretations. The adsorption processes follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The Boyd plots revealed that the adsorption processes were mainly controlled by film diffusion. Equilibrium data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models, at different temperatures. The equilibrium data were best represented by the Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption processes were found to be favorable, exothermic, and spontaneous. The açai stones and Brazil nut shells-based ACs were shown to be effective adsorbents for removal of BB26 from aqueous solutions.


Adsorption Activated carbon Chemical activation Basic blue 26 Brazil nut shell Açai stone 



Authors acknowledge the financial support provided by Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (MCTI)/Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)/Ministério da Educação (MEC)/Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) - (CNPq/400624/2014-1-Casadinho/PROCAD) (Brazil).


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thielle Nayara Vieira de Souza
    • 1
  • Melissa Gurgel Adeodato Vieira
    • 2
  • Meuris Gurgel Carlos da Silva
    • 2
  • Davi do Socorro Barros Brasil
    • 1
  • Samira Maria Leão de Carvalho
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Chemical EngineeringFederal University of ParáBelémBrazil
  2. 2.School of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of CampinasCampinasBrazil

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