Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 8, pp 8039–8049 | Cite as

Setal-epidermal, muscular and enzymatic anomalies induced by certain agrochemicals in the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg)

  • Suryasikha SamalEmail author
  • C. S. K. Mishra
  • Sunanda Sahoo
Research Article


Eudrilus eugeniae, the vermicomposing worm, is found in considerable numbers in agricultural fields in India due to their eventual transfer through vermimanure. These worms are very often exposed to pesticides, herbicides, chemical fertilisers and other soil amendments. This paper reports the effects of variable concentrations of urea, phosphogypsum (PG), paper mill sludge (PMS) and two organophosphorus agrochemicals, monocrotophos and glyphosate, on certain morphological, histological and biochemical parameters of E. eugeniae. Results indicated setal anomalies, epidermal lesions, clitellar swelling and constriction of the body. Disintegration of connective tissue, vacuolation of dermis and significant alterations in protein, lipid peroxidation levels and activities of lactate dehydrogenase, acetylcholinesterase and catalase have also been observed in the treated worms. It is proposed that setae, connective tissue, protein and enzymes in E. eugeniae could be useful markers to evaluate toxicity due to the test chemicals.


Eudrilus eugeniae Earthworm Agrochemicals Biomarkers 



The authors are thankful to the Science and Technology Department, Government of Odisha, India for financial support.


This study was funded by Science and Technology Department, Government of Odisha, India (Grant number ST-Bio-15/2014/1191).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors. All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

11356_2019_4204_MOESM1_ESM.docx (4.6 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 4742 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Zoology, College of Basic Science and HumanitiesOrissa University of Agriculture and TechnologyBhubaneswarIndia
  2. 2.School of Life SciencesSambalpur UniversityBurlaIndia

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