Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 8, pp 7566–7578 | Cite as

Light-absorbing impurities in snow of the Indian Western Himalayas: impact on snow albedo, radiative forcing, and enhanced melting

  • Parteek Singh Thind
  • Kamal Kumar Chandel
  • Sudhir Kumar Sharma
  • Tuhin Kumar Mandal
  • Siby JohnEmail author
Research Article


Seasonal snow cover in the Himalayas acts as source of fresh water for several Asian rivers such as Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Yangtze. Early loss of seasonal snow exposes the ice layer of the glaciers directly to sunlight, consequently leading to their ablation and alterations in discharge of glacier-fed rivers. Therefore, any alteration in the melting rate of the Himalayan snow pack can significantly affect the ecological balance in the region. Besides global warming, enhanced melting of snow, caused by light-absorbing impurities (LAIs) such as dust and elemental carbon (EC), has also been recognized as prominent cause of enhanced melting of snow in the Himalayas of China and Nepal. However, in light of vast area of the Himalayas and persistent emissions from India, studies, emphasizing the potential of LAIs to substantially affect the snow radiation budget of snow cover in IWHs, are still scanty. Therefore, in this study, field campaigns were made on three glaciers, i.e., Hamta, Beas Kund, and Deo Tibba, in IWHs to collect snow samples for estimation of LAIs. Snow of the studied glaciers was observed to be contaminated with 13.02 to 74.57 ng/g of EC and 32.14 to 216.54 μg/g of dust. Albedo simulations done using SNow and ICe Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model indicated that besides the changes caused by increased grain size, EC and dust, cumulatively induced 0.60 to 32.65% reduction in albedo of snow. Further assessment, constrained by measurements, illustrated that radiative forcing (RF), of 1.8 to 80 W/m2, was instigated due to enhanced thermal absorption of snow. Ten hours of daily mean RFs in this range could correspond to 3 to 9.65 mm/d of snow melt and contribute significantly in reducing the seasonal snow cover in IWHs. Considering the consequences of LAIs-induced snow melt and lack of in situ observations in the IWHs, the outcomes of this study could assist researchers and policy makers in developing efficient climate models and framing mitigation measures, respectively.


Light-absorbing impurities Indian Western Himalayas Elemental carbon Glaciers Albedo Radiative forcing Snow melt 


Supplementary material

11356_2019_4183_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.8 mb)
Fig. S1 Wind direction: (a) Hamta glacier; (b) Beas Kund glacier and (c) Deo Tibba glacier (DOCX 1.76 mb)
11356_2019_4183_MOESM2_ESM.docx (538 kb)
Fig. S2 Sketch of vaccum filter assembly (DOCX 537 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Punjab Engineering CollegeChandigarhIndia
  2. 2.Environmental Sciences and Biomedical Metrology DivisionCSIR-National Physical LaboratoryNew DelhiIndia

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