Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 8, pp 7896–7912 | Cite as

Causal correlation between energy use and carbon emissions in selected emerging economies—panel model approach

  • Kingsley AppiahEmail author
  • Jianguo Du
  • Michael Yeboah
  • Rhoda Appiah
Research Article


Fossil fuels used in energy mix continues to dictate world heat usage. Demand for heat is considered as substantial contributor to carbon emissions and energy-related emissions equivalent to 12.5 Gt of carbon emissions. Data on heat is limited and therefore, a study on the causal correlation between energy use and emissions would provide policy guidance on how to decarbonize the heat sector to achieve Paris’s Greenhouse Effect Treaty. Most empirical works aggregated energy consumption and ignore spatial dependence and heterogeneity in a panel dataset. Our study, however, disaggregated energy into renewable and non-renewable to find their distinct influence on emissions, which were tested for spatial dependence and heterogeneity and applied potential emissions as environmental impact. Using FGLS and PCSE estimators for the period 1971–2013, our findings revealed that the increase in renewable energy use and industrialization improves the ecological structure of emerging economies while the increase in population, economic expansion, and non-renewable energy use increases the carbon stock. We accordingly, investigated causation direction with pooled mean group estimator. Rising economic power states therefore encourage to ensure energy efficiency and replace fuel use with renewable source for heating to reduce carbon stock.


Carbon dioxide emission Renewable energy use Non-renewable energy use Emerging economies 



This work was supported by the Korean National Research Foundation Grant, funded by the Korean Government [NRF-2014SIA2027622] and supported in part by the National Science Foundation of China under grants 71471076, 71171099, 71373818 and 71201071 and by the Joint Research of the NSFC-NRF Scientific Cooperation Program under grant 71411170250 and by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education under grant 20123227110011. This work was also sponsored by the Qing Lan Project of Jiangsu Province, and Jiangsu University Top Talents and Training Project. We are also grateful to Mr. Stephen Appiah, Mr. Boakye Isaac and Dr. Francis Appiah for their contribution to this paper.

Author Contributions

All authors contributed equally to the preparation of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

No conflict of interest to be declared.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of ManagementJiangsu UniversityZhenjiangPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Accountancy DepartmentKumasi Technical UniversityKumasiGhana
  3. 3.AdministrationCommunity Special Vocational SchoolKumasiGhana

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