Advertisement

River Basin Management Plans as a tool for sustainable transboundary river basins’ management

  • Charalampos SkoulikarisEmail author
  • Antigoni Zafirakou
Environmental management, engineering, planning and economics
  • 22 Downloads

Abstract

Data availability and the existence of exchange mechanisms are considered crucial issues for the management of water bodies shared among riparian countries. Moreover, common legislative and technical frameworks are assets that foster the management of transboundary waters in an integrated and sustainable manner. The River Basin Management Plans of the European Union’s Water Framework Directive implementation process not only incorporate a cooperative framework, but also include open access internet-based databases that can enhance cooperation and shed light on water-related conflicts among countries that share transboundary waters. The proposed methodological approach in this research is applied in four transboundary river basins, where Greece is the downstream country, and the upstream countries are not all member states of the European Union. The areas of dispute were found in the 2nd Water Convention Report. For each particular case study, data and information from the respective River Basin Management Plans were used to investigate the actual situation. The results demonstrated that significant conflict situations in the past, which involved both water quality and water quantity issues, could be resolved using continuous and reliable datasets included in the management plans. The use of freely available data sources renders the findings of this work useful for the sustainable management of shared waters.

Keywords

River Basin Management Plans Transboundary waters Sustainable management Vardar/Axios river basin Struma/Strymonas river basin Mesta/Nestos river basin Maritsa/Evros/Meriç river basin 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The sources of the background map of Figs. 1 and 4 are as follows: Esri, HERE, DeLorme, Intermap, increment P Corp., GEBCO, USGS, FAO, NPS, NRCAN, GeoBase, IGN, Kadaster NL, Ordnance Survey, Esri Japan, METI, Esri China (Hong Kong), swisstopo, MapmyIndia, © OpenStreetMap contributors, and the GIS User Community.

References

  1. Abbaspour KC, Rouholahnejad E, Vaghefi S, Srinivasan R, Yang H, Kløve B (2015) A continental-scale hydrology and water quality model for Europe: calibration and uncertainty of a high-resolution large-scale SWAT model. J Hydrol 524:733–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdullaev I, Rakhmatullaev S (2016) River basin management in Central Asia: evidence from Isfara Basin, Fergana Valley. Environ Earth Sci 75:677.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-016-5270-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alexandridis TK, Monachou S, Skoulikaris C, Kalopesa E, Zalidis GC (2015) Investigation of the temporal relation of remotely sensed coastal water quality with GIS modeled upstream soil erosion. Hydrol Process 29:2373–2384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Angelidis P, Mystakidis G, Lalikidou S, Hrissanthou V, Kotsovinos N (2010) Computation of hydrographs in Evros river basin. Eur Water 31:33–42Google Scholar
  5. Argiropoulos D, Ganoulis J, Papachristou E (1996) Water quality assessment of the Greek part of Nestos (Mesta) River. In: Ganoulis J et al (eds) Transboundary Water Resources Management: Institutional and Engineering Approaches, NATO ASI SERIES, Partnership Sub-Series 2. Environment, vol 7. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, pp 427–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bates B (2009) Climate change and water: IPCC technical paper VI. World Health OrganizationGoogle Scholar
  7. Black R, Kniveton D, Skeldon R, Coppard D, Murata A, Schmidt-Verkerk K (2008) Demographics and climate change: Future trends and their policy implications for migration. Working Paper, Development Research Centre on Migration, Globalisation and Poverty, University of Sussex, BrightonGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen Z, Auler AS, Bakalowicz M, Drew D, Griger F, Hartmann J, Jiang G, Moosdorf N, Richts A, Stevanovic Z, Veni G, Goldscheider N (2017) The world karst aquifer mapping project: concept, mapping procedure and map of Europe. Hydrogeol J 25:771–785.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-016-1519-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Delipınar S, Karpuzcu M (2017) Policy, legislative and institutional assessments for integrated river basin management in Turkey. Environ Sci Pol 72:20–29.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2017.02.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Demetropoulou L, Nikolaidis N, Papadoulakis V, Tsakiris K, Koussouris T, Kalogerakis N, Koukaras K, Chatzinikolaou A, Theodoropoulos K (2010) Water framework directive implementation in Greece: introducing participation in water governance – the case of the Evrotas river basin management plan. Environ Pol Gov 20:336–349.  https://doi.org/10.1002/eet.553 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dinar S (2007) International water treaties: negotiation and cooperation along transboundary rivers. Routledge, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. European Commission (2015) Commission staff working document. Report on the implementation of the Water Framework Directive River Basin Management Plans, Member State: GREECE, Brussels, 9.3.2015, SWDGoogle Scholar
  13. European Parliament, Council of the European Union (2000) Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for community action in the field of water policy. Off J Eur Parliament.  https://doi.org/10.1039/ap9842100196
  14. Ganoulis J (2006) Water resources management and environmental security in Mediterranean transboundary river basins. In: Morel B, Linkov I (eds) Environmental security and environmental management: the role of risk assessment. NATO Security through Science Series (Series C: Environmental Security), vol 5. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  15. Ganoulis J, Zinke Environmental Consulting (2004) Inventory of Internationally Shared Surface Water Bodies in the Balkan Region: Characteristics and State of Policies. In: UNESCO-ROSTE, UNESCO- INWEB Workshop, Ganoulis J, Zinke Environmental Consulting (Eds.), Thessaloniki, 18-20 October. Available online at: www.watersee.net and www.inweb.gr
  16. Ganoulis J, Skoulikaris CH (2013) Interactive open source information systems for fostering transboundary water cooperation. In: Free Flow - Reaching Water Security Through Cooperation. UNESCO publishing, Tudor Rose, pp 94–98Google Scholar
  17. Ganoulis J, Aureli A, Fried J (2011) In: Ganoulis J et al (eds) Transboundary water resources management: a multidisciplinary approach. WILEY-VCH, WeinheimCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gecheva G, Yurukova L, Ganeva A (2011) Assessment of pollution with aquatic bryophytes in Maritsa River (Bulgaria). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 87(4):480–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gerlak AK, Lautze J, Giordano M (2011) Water resources data and information exchange in transboundary water treaties M. Int Environ Agreements 11(2):179–199.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10784-010-9144-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Glennie P, Bertule M, Eynard J, Jaiteh M, Schneider C, Bjørnsen P (2016) Chapter 1: Introduction. In UNEP-DHI and UNEP (2016). Transboundary River Basins: Status and Trends. United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, pp 1–7Google Scholar
  21. Heldt S, Rodríguez-de-Francisco JC, Dombrowsky I, Feld CK, Karthe D (2017) Is the EU WFD suitable to support IWRM planning in non-European countries? Lessons learnt from the introduction of IWRM and River Basin Management in Mongolia. Environ Sci Pol 75:28–37.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2017.05.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Huntjens P, Lebel L, Pahl-Wostl C, Camkin J, Schulze R, Kranz N (2012) Institutional design propositions for the governance of adaptation to climate change in the water sector. Glob Environ Chang 22(1):67–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ison R, Röling N, Watson D (2007) Challenges to science and society in the sustainable management and use of water: investigating the role of social learning. Environ Sci Pol 10(6):499–511.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2007.02.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jager N, Challies E, Kochskämper E, Newig J, Benson D, Blackstock K, Collins K, Ernst A, Evers M, Feichtinger J, Fritsch O, Gooch G, Grund W, Hedelin B, Hernández-Mora N, Hüesker F, Huitema D, Irvine K, Klinke A, Lange L, Loupsans D, Lubell M, Maganda C, Matczak P, Parés M, Saarikoski H, Slavíková L, van der Arend S, von Korff Y (2016) Transforming European water governance? Participation and river basin management under the EU water framework directive in 13 member states. Water 8(4):156.  https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040156 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kacar A (2011) Analysis of spatial and temporal variation in the levels of microbial fecal indicators in the major rivers flowing into the Aegean Sea. Turkey Ecol Indic 11:1360–1365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kallis G, Butler D (2001) The EU water framework directive: measures and implications. Water Policy 3(2):125–142.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1366-7017(01)00007-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kanakoudis V, Tsitsifli S (2014) River basin management plans developed in Greece, based on the WFD 2000/60/EC guidelines. Desalin Water Treat 56(5):1231–1239.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2014.979234 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Karageorgis AP, Skourtos MS, Kapsimalis V, Kontogianni AD, Skoulikidis NT, Pagou K, Nikolaidis NP, Drakopoulou P, Zanou B, Karamanos H, Levkov Z, Anagnostou C (2015) An integrated approach to watershed management within the DPSIR framework: Axios River catchment and Thermaikos Gulf. Reg Environ Chang 5:138–160.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-004-0078-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Karkkainen BC (2006) Managing transboundary aquatic ecosystems: lessons from the Great Lakes. In Pacific McGeorge Global Business & Development Law Journal, pp 209–240Google Scholar
  30. Keessen AM, van Kempen JJH, van Rijswick HFMW (2008) Transboundary river basin management in Europe, legal instruments to comply with European water management obligations in case of transboundary water pollution and floods. Utrecht Law Rev 4(3):35–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lee E, Jayakumar R, Shrestha S, Han Z (2018) Assessment of transboundary aquifer resources in Asia: status and progress towards sustainable groundwater management. J Hydrol Reg Stud 20:103–115.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrh.2018.01.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Liska I (2015) Managing an international river basin towards water quality protection: the Danube case. In: Liska I (ed) The Danube River basin. The handbook of environmental chemistry, vol 39. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Milano M, Chèvre N, Reynard E (2018) Assessing watercourse quality: challenges in implementing European and Swiss legal frameworks. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:805–823.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0423-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Milovanovic M (2007) Water quality assessment and determination of pollution sources along the Axios/Vardar River, Southeastern Europe. Desalination 213(1–3):159–173.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2006.06.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Moellenkamp S (2007) The “WFD-effect” on upstream-downstream relations in international river basins – insights from the Rhine and the Elbe basins. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci Discuss 4:1407–1428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Moroglu M, Yazgan MS (2008) Implementation of EU water framework directive in Turkey. Desalination 226(1–3):271–278.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2007.01.245 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mostert E (2009) International co-operation on Rhine water quality 1945–2008: an example to follow? Phys Chem Earth A/B/C 34(3):142–149.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pce.2008.06.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mylopoulos Y, Eleftheriadou E, Kampragou E (2004) The transboundary catchment of River Nestos and the bilateral agreement between Greece and Bulgaria. In: ECO-Geowater conference, GI for International River Basin Management, Budapest, 3–5 JuneGoogle Scholar
  39. Newig J, Fritsch O (2009) Environmental governance: participatory, multi-level – and effective? Env Pol Gov 19:197–214.  https://doi.org/10.1002/eet.509 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. O’Riordan T (2014) Environmental science for environmental management. Routledge, London 544ppGoogle Scholar
  41. Pahl-Wostl C (2007) The implications of complexity for integrated resources management. Environ Model Softw 22(5):561–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Popovska C, Geshovska V (2014) Water balance model for vulnerability assessment of water resources in Strumica river basin. Irrig Drain Syst Eng 3:127.  https://doi.org/10.4172/2168-9768.1000127 Google Scholar
  43. Puri S, Aureli A (2005) Transboundary aquifers: a global program to assess, evaluate, and develop policy. Ground Water 43(5):661–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rieu-Clarke A, Moynihan A, Magsig BO (2015) Transboundary water governance and climate change adaptation: international law, policy guidelines and best practice application. WWAP. UNESCO, ParisGoogle Scholar
  45. Rivera A, Candela L (2018) Fifteen-year experiences of the internationally shared aquifer resources management initiative (ISARM) of UNESCO at the global scale. J Hydrol Reg Stud 20:5–14.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrh.2017.12.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rode M, Suhr U (2007) Uncertainties in selected river water quality data. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci Discuss 11:863–874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Skoulikaris CH (2008) Mathematical modeling applied to integrated water resources management: the case of Mesta-Nestos basin. Dissertation. École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris (in English)Google Scholar
  48. Skoulikaris C, Ganoulis J (2011) Assessing climate change impacts at river basin scale by integrating global circulation models with regional hydrological simulations. Eur Water 34:53–60Google Scholar
  49. Skoulikaris C, Filali-Meknassi Y, Aureli A, Amani A, Jiménez-Cisneros BE (2018) Information-Communication Technologies as an Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Tool for Sustainable Development. In: Komatina D (ed) Integrated River Basin management for sustainable development of regions. InTech, Rieka (in press)Google Scholar
  50. Skoulikidis N (2007) The environmental state of rivers in the Balkans—a review within the DPSIR framework. Sci Total Environ 407(8):2501–2516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Smith L, Inman A, Lai X, Zhang H, Fanqiao M, Jianbin Z, Burke S, Rahn C, Siciliano G, Haygarth PM, Bellarby J, Surridge B (2017) Mitigation of diffuse water pollution from agriculture in England and China, and the scope for policy transfer. Land Use Policy 61:208–219.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2016.09.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Swain A (2001) Water wars: fact or fiction? Futures 33(8–9):769–781.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-3287(01)00018-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Transboundary Cooperation Fact Sheets (2012) Part of “comparative study of pressures and measures in the Major River basin management plans”. Task 1 – Governance. Final Report. 28 November 2012Google Scholar
  54. Turner AB, Colby JD, Csontos RM, Batten M (2013) Flood modeling using a synthesis of multi-platform LiDAR data. Water 5(4):1533–1560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. TWAP (2016) Transboundary waters assessment Programme. The global transboundary river basins. TWAP Rivers Data PortalGoogle Scholar
  56. UN, G.A. (2015) Transforming our world: the 2030 agenda for sustainable development. A/RES/70/1, 21 October; 2015Google Scholar
  57. UNECE (2007) First assessment of transboundary rivers, lakes and groundwaters. UNECE, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  58. UNECE (2011) Second assessment of transboundary rivers, lakes and groundwaters. UNECE, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  59. UNEP-DHI and UNEP (2016) Transboundary river basins: status and trends, summary for policy makers. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), NairobiGoogle Scholar
  60. UNEP-MAP, UNESCO-IHP (2015) Legal, institutional and policy aspects of coastal aquifer management. Strategic Partnership for the Mediterranean Sea Large Marine Ecosystem (MedPartnership), ParisGoogle Scholar
  61. UNESCO-WWAP (2009) The United Nations World Water Development Report 3: Water in a Changing World. UNESCO, ParisGoogle Scholar
  62. UNESCO-WWAP (2015) UNESCO World Water Assessment Programme - The United Nations World Water Development Report. Water for a Sustainable World. UNESCO, Paris, p 2015Google Scholar
  63. United Nations (1987) Our common future, report of the world commission on environment and development. United NationsGoogle Scholar
  64. van de Bund WJ (2009) Water framework directive intercalibration technical report. Part 1: rivers. JRC scientific and technical reports. ISSN 1018–5593, pp 179Google Scholar
  65. Verbist K, Amani A, Mishra A, Jiménez B (2016) Strengthening drought risk management and policy: UNESCO international hydrological Programme’s case studies from Africa and Latin America and the Caribbean. Water Policy 18:245–261.  https://doi.org/10.2166/wp.2016.223 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wolf AT, Natharius JA, Danielson JJ, Ward BS, Pender JK (1999) International river basins of the world. Int J Water Resour Dev 15(4):387–427.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07900629948682 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Yoon T, Rhodes C, Shah FA (2014) Upstream water resource management to address downstream pollution concerns: a policy framework with application to the Nakdong river basin in South Korea. Water Resour Res 51(2):787–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UNESCO Chair INWEB, University CampusAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece
  2. 2.Department of Civil Engineering, University CampusAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece

Personalised recommendations