Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 4588–4604 | Cite as

The potential modulatory role of herbal additives against Cd toxicity in human, animal, and poultry: a review

  • Asmaa F. Khafaga
  • Mohamed E. Abd El-HackEmail author
  • Ayman E. Taha
  • Shaaban S. Elnesr
  • Mahmoud AlagawanyEmail author
Review Article


Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy and toxic metal and easily absorbed by animals and plants; subsequently, it is an environmental risk factor with several toxic effects in humans and animals. The main pathway of human or animal exposure to Cd is through its ingestion by water or food and by particles or fume inhalation during industrial processes. With continuous exposure to small levels of cadmium, it is being deposited in different tissues day after day, causing toxic effects on the liver, kidney, and testes. Long-term exposure to this toxic metal resulted in inflammatory infiltration, necrosis of hepatocytes, degenerative changes in testis tissues, reduction in spermatocytes, degeneration in renal tubules, and hypertrophy of renal epithelium. Therefore, we need an effective treatment to overcome cadmium poisoning. Thus, in the current review, we try to provide compiled reports and summarize information about the toxicological effects of Cd in human, animals, and poultry. This review also provides updated information about the protective actions of herbs and herbal extracts and their role as an effective strategy in reducing or preventing serious health problems and tissue damage in response to Cd toxicity.


Cadmium toxicity Heavy metals Animals Poultry Herbs Therapeutic action 



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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Asmaa F. Khafaga
    • 1
  • Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ayman E. Taha
    • 3
  • Shaaban S. Elnesr
    • 4
  • Mahmoud Alagawany
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineAlexandria UniversityEdfinaEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Poultry, Faculty of AgricultureZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt
  3. 3.Department of Animal Husbandry and Animal Wealth Development, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineAlexandria UniversityEdfinaEgypt
  4. 4.Department of Poultry Production, Faculty of AgricultureFayoum UniversityFayoumEgypt

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