Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 5020–5037 | Cite as

Highly adsorptive chitosan/saponin-bentonite composite film for removal of methyl orange and Cr(VI)

  • Livy Laysandra
  • Immanuel Joseph Ondang
  • Yi-Hsu Ju
  • Benedikta Hervina Ariandini
  • Agatha Mariska
  • Felycia Edi SoetaredjoEmail author
  • Jindrayani Nyoo Putro
  • Shella Permatasari Santoso
  • Farida Lanawati Darsono
  • Suryadi IsmadjiEmail author
Research Article


Robust and simple composite films for the removal of methyl orange (MO) and Cr(VI) have been prepared by combining chitosan, saponin, and bentonite at a specific ratio. There are several composite films (chitosan-saponin-bentonite (CSB)) prepared; among them, the composite films CSB2:3 and CSB1:1 have the highest removal efficiency toward MO and Cr(VI) where the maximum removal is 70.4% (pH 4.80) and 92.3% (pH 5.30), respectively. It was found that different types of adsorbate have different thermodynamic properties of the adsorption process; the adsorption of MO onto CSB2:3, chitosan, and acid-activated bentonite (AAB) proceeded endothermically, while the adsorption of Cr(VI) onto CSB1:1, chitosan, and AAB proceeded exothermically. The parameters of the adsorption were modeled by using isotherm and kinetic equations. The models of Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, Sips, and Toth were used for fitting the adsorption isotherm data at a temperature of 30, 45, and 60 °C; all of the isotherm models could represent the data well. The result indicates that CSB2:3 has the highest adsorption capacity toward MO with qm of 360.90 mg g−1 at 60 °C; meanwhile, CSB1:1 has the highest adsorption capacity toward Cr(VI) with qm 641.99 mg g−1 at 30 °C. The pseudo-second-order model could represent the adsorption kinetics data better than the pseudo-first-order equation. The adsorption mechanism was proposed, and the thermodynamic properties of the adsorption were also studied.


Ca-bentonite Saponin Chitosan Anionic dyes Heavy metals: CSB film 


Funding information

Financial support from the Ministry of Research and Technology and Higher Education through Fundamental Research grant is highly appreciated.

Supplementary material

11356_2018_4035_MOESM1_ESM.docx (244 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 243 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Livy Laysandra
    • 1
  • Immanuel Joseph Ondang
    • 1
  • Yi-Hsu Ju
    • 2
  • Benedikta Hervina Ariandini
    • 1
  • Agatha Mariska
    • 1
  • Felycia Edi Soetaredjo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jindrayani Nyoo Putro
    • 3
  • Shella Permatasari Santoso
    • 1
  • Farida Lanawati Darsono
    • 4
  • Suryadi Ismadji
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringWidya Mandala Surabaya Catholic UniversitySurabayaIndonesia
  2. 2.Graduate Institute of Applied Science, National Taiwan University of Science and TechnologyTaipeiTaiwan
  3. 3.Department of Chemical EngineeringNational Taiwan University of Science and TechnologyTaipeiTaiwan
  4. 4.Faculty of PharmacyWidya Mandala Surabaya Catholic UniversitySurabayaIndonesia

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