Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 6, pp 5831–5841 | Cite as

Spatial and temporal variations of volatile organic compounds using passive air samplers in the multi-industrial city of Ulsan, Korea

  • Seong-Joon Kim
  • Hye-Ok Kwon
  • Myoung-In Lee
  • Yongwon Seo
  • Sung-Deuk ChoiEmail author
Research Article
  • 116 Downloads

Abstract

The source-receptor relationship of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is an important environmental concern, particularly in large industrial cities; however, only a few studies have identified VOC sources using high spatial resolution data. In this study, 28 VOCs were monitored in Ulsan, the biggest multi-industrial city in Korea. Passive air samplers were seasonally deployed at eight urban and six industrial sites. The target compounds were detected at all sites. No significant seasonal variations of VOCs were observed probably due to the continuous emissions from major industrial facilities. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and styrene accounted for 66–86% of the concentration of Σ28 VOCs. The spatial distribution of the individual VOCs clearly indicated that petrochemical, automobile, non-ferrous, and shipbuilding industries were major VOC sources. Seasonal wind patterns were found to play a role in the spatial distribution of VOCs. Diagnostic ratios also confirmed that the industrial complexes were the dominant VOC sources. The results of principal component analysis and correlation analyses identified the influence of specific compounds from each industrial complex on individual sites. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report on the seasonal distribution of VOCs with high spatial resolution in a metropolitan industrial city in Korea.

Keywords

VOCs Passive air sampler Spatial distribution Source identification 

Notes

Funding information

This work was supported by the 2018 Research Fund (1.180015.01) of UNIST (Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology), by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) as “Public Technology Program based on Environmental Policy (2016000160002)”, and by a grant [KCG-01-2017-01] through the Disaster and Safety Management Institute funded by Korea Coast Guard of Korean government.

Supplementary material

11356_2018_4032_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.7 mb)
ESM 1 (PDF 1779 kb)

References

  1. An J, Zhu B, Wang H, Li Y, Lin X, Yang H (2014) Characteristics and source apportionment of VOCs measured in an industrial area of Nanjing, Yangtze River Delta, China. Atmos Environ 97:206–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bhattacharya SS, Kim K-H, Ullah MA, Goswami L, Sahariah B, Bhattacharyya P, Cho S-B, Hwang O-H (2015) The effects of composting approaches on the emissions of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds: a comparison between vermicomposting and general aerobic composting. Environ Pollut 208:600–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bruno P, Caselli M, Gennaro G, Scolletta L, Trizio L, Tutino M (2008) Assessment of the impact produced by the traffic source on VOC level in the urban area of Canosa di Puglia (Italy). Water Air Soil Pollut 193:37–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen X, Luo Q, Wang D, Gao J, Wei Z, Wang Z, Zhou H, Mazumder A (2015) Simultaneous assessments of occurrence, ecological, human health, and organoleptic hazards for 77 VOCs in typical drinking water sources from 5 major river basins, China. Environ Pollut 206:64–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen J, Huang Y, Li G, An T, Hu Y, Li Y (2016) VOCs elimination and health risk reduction in e-waste dismantlingworkshop using integrated techniques of electrostatic precipitation with advanced oxidation technologies. J Hazard Mater 302:395–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Choi S-D, Kwon H-O, Lee Y-S, Park E-J, Oh J-Y (2012) Improving the spatial resolution of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using passive air samplers in a multi-industrial city. J Hazard Mater 241-242:252–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Civan MY, Elbir T, Seyfioglu R, Kuntasal ÖO, Bayram A, Doğan G, Yurdakul S, Andiç Ö, Müezzinoğlu A, Sofuoglu SC, Pekey H, Pekey B, Bozlaker A, Odabasi M, Tuncel G (2015) Spatial and temporal variations in atmospheric VOCs, NO2, SO2, and O3 concentrations at a heavily industrialized region in Western Turkey, and assessment of the carcinogenic risk levels of benzene. Atmos Environ 103:102–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clarke K, Kwon H-O, Choi S-D (2014) Fast and reliable source identification of criteria air pollutants in an industrial city. Atmos Environ 95:239–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Demirel G, Özden Ö, Döğeroğlu T, Gaga EO (2014) Personal exposure of primary school children to BTEX, NO2 and ozone in Eskişehir, Turkey: relationship with indoor/outdoor concentrations and risk assessment. Sci Total Environ 473-474:537–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dumanoglu Y, Kara M, Altiok H, Odabasi M, Elbir T, Bayram A (2014) Spatial and seasonal variation and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a heavily industrialized region. Atmos Environ 98:168–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fanizza C, Incoronato F, Baiguera S, Schiro R, Brocco D (2014) Volatile organic compound levels at one site in Rome urban air. Atmos Pollut Res 5:303–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gallego E, Roca FJ, Perales JF, Guardino X (2011) Comparative study of the adsorption performance of an active multi-sorbent bed tube (Carbotrap, Carbopack X, carboxen 569) and a Radiello® diffusive sampler for the analysis of VOCs. Talanta 85:662–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Geiss O, Giannopoulos G, Tirendi S, Barrero-Moreno J, Larsen BR, Kotzias D (2011) The AIRMEX study - VOC measurements in public buildings and schools/kindergartens in eleven European cities: statistical analysis of the data. Atmos Environ 45:3676–3684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ho KF, Lee SC, Guo H, Tsai WY (2004) Seasonal and diurnal variations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere of Hong Kong. Sci Total Environ 322:155–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hoque RR, Khillare PS, Agarwal T, Shridhar V, Balachandran S (2008) Spatial and temporal variation of BTEX in the urban atmosphere of Delhi, India. Sci Total Environ 392:30–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hsieh L-T, Yang H-H, Chen H-W (2006) Ambient BTEX and MTBE in the neighborhoods of different industrial parks in Southern Taiwan. J Hazard Mater 123:106–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. IARC (2016) Agents classified by the IARC monographs, volumes 1–120, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/List_of_Classifications.pdf, Accessed 15 Dec 2016
  18. Jaars K, Beukes JP, PGv Z, Venter AD, Josipovic M, Pienaar JJ, Vakkari V, Aaltonen H, Laakso H, Kulmala M, Tiitta P, Guenther A, Hellén H, Laakso L, Hakola H (2014) Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa. Atmos Chem Phys 14:7075–7089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jo W-K, Chun H-H, Lee S-O (2012) Evaluation of atmospheric volatile organic compound characteristics in specific areas in Korea using long-term monitoring data. Environ Eng Res 17:103–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kerchich Y, Kerbachi R (2013) Measurement of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethybenzene, and xylene) levels at urban and semirural areas of Algiers city using passive air samplers. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 62:1370–1379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kim K-H, Ho DX, Park CG, Ma C-J, Pandey SK, Lee SC, Jeong HJ, Lee SH (2012) Volatile organic compounds in ambient air at four residential locations in Seoul, Korea. Environ Eng Sci 29:875–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lan TTN, Binh NTT (2012) Daily roadside BTEX concentrations in East Asia measured by the Lanwatsu, Radiello and ultra I SKS passive samplers. Sci Total Environ 441:248–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lee B-K, Jun N-Y, Lee HK (2004) Comparison of particulate matter characteristics before, during, and after Asian dust events in Incheon and Ulsan, Korea. Atmos Environ 38:1535–1545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lee S-H, Kim Y-K, Kim H-S, Lee H-W (2007) Influence of dense surface meteorological data assimilation on the prediction accuracy of ozone pollution in the southeastern coastal area of the Korean Peninsula. Atmos Environ 41:4451–4465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Li J, RongrongWu LY, Hao Y, Xie S, Zeng L (2016) Effects of rigorous emission controls on reducing ambient volatile organic compounds in Beijing, China. Sci Total Environ 557-558:531–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Liu P-WG, Yao Y-C, Tsai J-H, Hsu Y-C, Chang L-P, Chang K-H (2008) Source impacts by volatile organic compounds in an industrial city of southern Taiwan. Sci Total Environ 398:154–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Maugeri-IRCCS FS (2006) Manual full version, Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri-IRCCS. http://www.radiello.com/english/Radiello%27s%20manual%2001-06.pdf, Accessed 1 Jan 2016
  28. Miller L, Xu X, Luginaah I (2009) Spatial variability of volatile organic compound concentrations in Sarnia, Ontario, Canada. J Toxicol Environ Health A 72:610–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Miller L, Xu X, Wheeler A, Atari DO, Grgicak-Mannion A, Luginaah I (2011) Spatial variability and application of ratios between BTEX in two Canadian cities. ScientificWorldJournal 11:2536–2549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Miller L, Xu X, Grgicak-Mannion A, Brook J, Wheeler A (2012) Multi-season, multi-year concentrations and correlations amongst the BTEX group of VOCs in an urbanized industrial city. Atmos Environ 61:305–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. MOE (2014a) Monthly report of air quality, July 2014, Ministry of Environment (MOE). http://www.airkorea.or.kr/file/download/?atch_id=19481, Accessed 13 June 2016
  32. MOE (2014b) Monthyl report of air quality, August 2014, Ministry of Environment (MOE). http://www.airkorea.or.kr/file/download/?atch_id=19483, Accessed 13 June 2016
  33. MOE (2014c) Monthyl report of air quality, November 2014, Ministry of Environment (MOE). http://www.airkorea.or.kr/file/download/?atch_id=19490, Accessed 13 June 2016
  34. MOE (2014d) Monthyl report of air quality, October 2014, Ministry of Environment (MOE). http://www.airkorea.or.kr/file/download/?atch_id=19488, Accessed 13 June 2016
  35. MOE (2014e) Pollutant release and transfer registers (PRTR), Ministry of Environment (MOE). http://ncis.nier.go.kr/triopen, Accessed 7 Oct 2015
  36. MOE (2015a) Monthyl report of air quality, Feburuary 2015, Ministry of Environment (MOE). http://www.airkorea.or.kr/file/download/?atch_id=42446, Accessed 13 June 2016
  37. MOE (2015b) Monthyl report of air quality, April 2015, Ministry of Environment (MOE). http://www.airkorea.or.kr/file/download/?atch_id=22274, Accessed 13 June 2016
  38. MOE (2015c) Monthyl report of air quality, January 2015, Ministry of Environment (MOE). http://www.airkorea.or.kr/file/download/?atch_id=19649, Accessed 13 June 2016
  39. MOE (2015d) Monthyl report of air quality, May 2015, Ministry of Environment (MOE). http://www.airkorea.or.kr/file/download/?atch_id=22276, Accessed 13 June 2016
  40. Na K, Kim YP, Moon K-C, Moon I, Fung K (2001) Concentrations of volatile organic compounds in an industrial area of Korea. Atmos Environ 35:2747–2756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nelson PF, Quigley SM (1983) The m,p-xylenes:ethylbenzene ratio. A technique to estimating hydrocarbon age in ambient atmospheres. Atmos Environ 17:659–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pennequin-Cardinal A, Plaisance H, Locoge N, Ramalho O, Sv K, Galloo J-C (2005) Performances of the Radiellos diffusive sampler for BTEX measurements: influence of environmental conditions and determination of modelled sampling rates. Atmos Environ 39:2535–2544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pugliese SC, Murphy JG, Geddes JA, Wang JM (2014) The impacts of precursor reduction and meteorology on ground-level ozone in the Greater Toronto Area. Atmos Chem Phys 14:8197–8207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Roukos J, Riffault V, Locoge N, Plaisance H (2009) VOC in an urban and industrial harbor on the French North Sea coast during two contrasted meteorological situations. Environ Pollut 157:3001–3009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Saalberg Y, Wolff M (2016) VOC breath biomarkers in lung cancer. Clin Chim Acta 459:5–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sarkar C, Chatterjee A, Majumdar D, Ghosh SK, Srivastava A, Raha S (2014) Volatile organic compounds over eastern Himalaya, India: temporal variation and source characterization using positive matrix factorization. Atmos Chem Phys 14:32133–32175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Shi J, Deng H, Bai Z, Kong S, Wang X, Hao J, Han X, Ning P (2015) Emission and profile characteristic of volatile organic compounds emitted from coke production, iron smelt, heating station and power plant in Liaoning Province, China. Sci Total Environ 515-516:101–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Shin SH, Jo WK (2012) Volatile organic compound concentrations, emission rates, and source apportionment in newly-built apartments at pre-occupancy stage. Chemosphere 89:569–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Susaya J, Kim K-H, Shon Z-H, Brown RJC (2013) Demonstration of long-term increases in tropospheric O3 levels: causes and potential impacts. Chemosphere 92:1520–1528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tassi F, Capecchiacci F, Giannini L, Vougioukalakis GE, Vaselli O (2013) Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air from Nisyros Island (Dodecanese archipelago, Greece): natural versus anthropogenic sources. Environ Pollut 180:111–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Terrés IMM, Miñarro MD, Ferradas EG, Caracena AB, Rico JB (2010) Assessing the impact of petrol stations on their immediate surroundings. J Environ Manag 91:2754–2762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tiwari V, Hanai Y, Masunaga S (2010) Ambient levels of volatile organic compounds in the vicinity of petrochemical industrial area of Yokohama, Japan. Air Qual Atmos Health 3:65–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tovalin-Ahumada H, Whitehead L (2007) Personal exposures to volatile organic compounds among outdoor and indoor workers in two Mexican cities. Sci Total Environ 376:60–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. US-EPA (1999) National Air Toxics Program: the integrated urban strategy; notice, United States Environmental Protection Agency. https://www3.epa.gov/airtoxics/area/fr19jy99.pdf, Accessed 20 Apr 2018
  55. US-EPA (2001) Sources, emission, and exposure for trichloroethylene and related chemicals, United States Environmental Protection Agency. http://ofmpub.epa.gov/eims/eimscomm.getfile?p_download_id=4824, Accessed 20 Apr 2018
  56. Valach AC, Langford B, Nemitz E, MacKenzie AR, Hewitt CN (2014) Concentrations of selected volatile organic compounds at kerbside and background sites in Central London. Atmos Environ 95:456–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Vega E, Sánchez-Reyna G, Mora-Perdomo V, Iglesias GS, Arriaga JL, Limón-Sánchez T, Escalona-Segura S, Gonzalez-Avalos E (2011) Air quality assessment in a highly industrialized area of Mexico: concentrations and sources of volatile organic compounds. Fuel 90:3509–3520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Villanueva F, Tapia A, Notario A, Albaladejo J, Martínez E (2014) Ambient levels and temporal trends of VOCs, including carbonyl compounds, and ozone at Cabañeros National Park border, Spain. Atmos Environ 85:256–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Warneke C, Geiger F, Edwards PM, Dube W, Pétron G, Kofler J, Zahn A, Brown SS, Graus M, Gilman JB, Lerner BM, Peischl J, Ryerson TB, JAd G, Roberts JM (2014) Volatile organic compound emissions from the oil and natural gas industry in the Uintah Basin, Utah: oil and gas well pad emissions compared to ambient air composition. Atmos Chem Phys 14:10977–10988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Yurdakul S, Civan M, Tuncel G (2013) Volatile organic compounds in suburban Ankara atmosphere, Turkey: sources and variability. Atmos Res 120-121:298–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Zhang J, Sun Y, Wu F, Sun J, Wang Y (2014) The characteristics, seasonal variation and source apportionment of VOCs at Gongga Mountain, China. Atmos Environ 88:297–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zhang Z, Wang X, Zhang Y, Lü S, Huang Z, Huang X, Wang Y (2015) Ambient air benzene at background sites in China's most developed coastal regions: exposure levels, source implications and health risks. Sci Total Environ 511:792–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Urban and Environmental EngineeringUlsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST)UlsanRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations