This study proposed the optimization of a laccase-mediator system to reduce pesticide levels (bentazone, carbofuran, diuron, clomazone, tebuconazole, and pyraclostrobin) on aqueous medium. Firstly, the mediator concentration of 1 mM was established (average removal of 36%). After that, seven redox-mediating compounds, namely, 2,20-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, and vanillin, were compared regarding their removal efficiency. The highest removal (77%) was achieved with the laccase-vanillin system. After this screening, the optimization was carried out by a 22 full factorial design. Variables under study were the enzyme (laccase) activity and vanillin concentration. Maximum removal (53–85%) was achieved with 0.95 U/mL laccase and 1.8 mM vanillin. Pesticide removal in reaction media was fitted to the first-order kinetics equation with an average half-time life of 2.2 h. This is the first study of the use of this natural compound as a mediator in the degradation of the pesticides under investigation. The results of this study contribute, with alternative methods, to decrease pesticide levels since they are highly persistent in aqueous samples and, as a result, mitigate the environmental impact.
Pesticide removal Vanillin Laccase Bioremediation Full factorial design Environmental impact
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E.G. Primel is a CNPQ scholarship holder – Brazil (Process number - DT 311694/2016-0). E.B. Furlong is a CNPQ scholarship holder – Brazil (Process number - DT 303604-/2016-6). L. Kupski received a postdoctoral fellowship by CNPq (438450/2016-7).
Part of this study was supported by a grant from Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior – Brasil (CAPES) - Finance Code 001, by the FAPERGS PqG 2017 (17/2551-0000966-5) and FINEP.
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1.Post-graduation Program in Technological and Environmental Chemistry, Escola de Química e Alimentos, Laboratório de Análise de Compostos Orgânicos e Metais (LACOM)Universidade Federal do Rio GrandeRio GrandeBrazil
2.Post-graduation Program in Food Engineering and Science, Escola de Química e Alimentos, Laboratório de Micotoxinas e Ciências Alimentos (LAMCA)Universidade Federal do Rio GrandeRio GrandeBrazil