Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 4833–4841 | Cite as

Multi-response optimization to obtain better performance and emission level in a diesel engine fueled with water-biodiesel emulsion fuel and nanoadditive

  • Suresh VellaiyanEmail author
  • Arunkumar Subbiah
  • Prabha Chockalingam
Research Article


The present study aims to investigate the optimum condition of stationary diesel engine’s operating parameters to obtain better performance and emission level, where the diesel engine is fueled with different concentrations of soybean biodiesel (SB), water, and alumina (Al) nanoadditive. Taguchi method coupled with gray relational analysis has been implemented in this study to obtain the optimum concentration of SB, water, and Al nanoparticle, and statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) is applied to obtain the individual response of operating parameters on overall engine performance and emission level. Various concentration of SB (10%, 20%, and 30%), water (10%, 20%, and 30%), and Al nanoparticle (50 ppm, 100 ppm, and 150 ppm) are mixed with base diesel (BD) by mechanical agitation and followed by an ultra-sonication process. The fuel properties are measured based on EN590 standards, and the experiments are conducted in a single-cylinder, four-stroke, natural aspirated stationary diesel engine based on an L9 orthogonal array fuel combination. From the obtained gray relational co-efficient (GRC) and signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, the optimum concentration of SB, water, and nanoadditive are identified as 20%, 10%, and 100 ppm, respectively, and a confirmation experiment has also been carried out to confirm the improvements at optimum condition. The ANOVA results imply that water concentration (WC) has the maximum influence on overall diesel engine’s performance and emission level followed by nanoparticle and SB concentrations. Overall, it can be concluded that the engine exhibits better performance and greener emissions at optimal condition.


Diesel engine Soybean biodiesel Emulsion fuel Nanoadditive Optimization ANOVA 



The authors like to thank the management of Coimbatore Institute of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, India, for providing the lab facilities to execute the research work.

Funding information

The authors declare that they have no competing financial interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Haramaya Institute of TechnologyHaramaya UniversityDire DawaEthiopia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringEasa College of Engineering and TechnologyCoimbatoreIndia
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringKarunya UniversityCoimbatoreIndia

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