Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 4764–4776 | Cite as

Analysis of the total factor energy efficiency and its influencing factors of the Belt and Road key regions in China

  • Zhongshan Yang
  • Xiaoxue WeiEmail author
Research Article


Energy cooperation has been emphasized strongly in the Belt and Road (B&R) initiative. Therefore, the energy efficiency of China has attracted much attention from experts. However, relevant studies are still insufficient. This paper analyzes the total factor energy efficiency (TFEE) and its influencing factors of 17 B&R key regions from 2005 to 2015. We use the ratio of target energy input and actual energy input to calculate the regional TFEE under environmental constraints. The Malmquist index and the Tobit model are applied to investigate the internal and external influences of TFEE. Measurement analysis shows that the TFEE of the B&R key regions has not improved in recent years and it is unbalanced during the study period. Regions in the east area have the highest TFEE; regions in the west area have the second high TFEE; and regions in the north area have the lowest TFEE. Regression analysis shows that for the B&R key regions, technical changes, coal consumption, research and development, and environmental pollution have mainly negative effects on TFEE; pure efficiency changes, scale efficiency changes, economic structure, opening up, and government finance have mainly positive effects on TFEE. Finally, precise policy implications are proposed.


The Belt and Road Total factor energy efficiency Malmquist Tobit model Influencing factors 


Funding information

This work is supported by the National Social Science Foundation of China (Grant564 No.13&ZD171).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of StatisticsDongbei University of Finance and EconomicsDalianChina

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