Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 4605–4617 | Cite as

Multiple lines of evidence of sediment quality in an urban Marine Protected Area (Xixová-Japuí State Park, SP, Brazil)

  • Lucas Buruaem MoreiraEmail author
  • Júlia Beatriz Duarte Alves de Camargo
  • Bruna Belletato Marques
  • César C. Martins
  • Denis Moledo de Souza Abessa
Research Article


Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) aim to protect habitats, biodiversity, and ecological processes as a conservation tool. These areas have been affected by contamination, which threats the biodiversity and ecological functioning. In this study, we evaluated the sediment quality of Xixová-Japuí State Park (XJSP), an MPA located in an urbanized Bay (Santos, Southeast Brazil) by integrating multiple lines-of-evidence. Six sites were selected within the XJSP and analyzed for sediment chemistry, toxicity, and benthic community descriptors using Sediment Quality Triad approach (SQT). Whole-sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) was employed as a complementary line of evidence to confirm the presence of domestic effluent discharges as a potential stressor. The SQT showed that sediments collected within XJSP are impacted by contaminants, exhibiting chronic toxicity and changes in benthic community. TIE results indicated that trace metals, organic contaminants, and ammonia contributed to the observed effects. Our results also indicate a lack of effectiveness of MPA in protecting the biodiversity due to the contamination sources, which requires efforts to pollution control in order to ensure the environmental conservation and management plan goals.


Environmental management Environmental monitoring Macrobenthic community Marine pollution Sediment quality triad Toxicity identification evaluation 



We thank the São Paulo Forest Foundation (Forest Foundation) and XJSP manager for the collection license and support. The authors wish to thank Marines Maria Wilhelm and Marina Reback Domingues Garcia for support during the laboratory procedures and instrumental analysis of hydrocarbons.

Funding information

This work was financially supported by the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq; Grant no. 455280/2014-2). Dr. Lucas Buruaem was supported by FAPESP (Grant no. 13/15482-0, São Paulo State Research Foundation), and Dr. Abessa was supported by CNPq (Grant no. 311609/2014-7). J. Camargo was supported by PIBIC-CNPq (Grant nos. 31552, 34449, 39038).

Supplementary material

11356_2018_3941_MOESM1_ESM.doc (210 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 210 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Núcleo de Estudos em Poluição e Ecotoxicologia AquáticaUniversidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)São VicenteBrazil
  2. 2.Centro de Estudos do MarUniversidade Federal do ParanáPontal do ParanáBrazil

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