Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 4703–4716 | Cite as

Amendment of Caulerpa sertularioides marine alga with sulfur-containing materials to accelerate Cu removal from aqueous media

  • Bahman RamavandiEmail author
  • Sina Dobaradaran
  • Fatemeh Papari
  • George A. SorialEmail author
  • Ahmad Ebrahimi
  • Leila Madeh Khaksar
  • Samad Akbarzadeh
  • Seyedenayat Hashemi
  • Fatemeh Teimori
Research Article


This study reports a new approach of alga amendment in a live mode. The Caulerpa sertularioides alga was modified with sulfur-containing materials of methionine (C5H11NO2S) and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) to more concentrate the sulfur content of the yielded biomass (adsorbent). The simple and amended C. sertularioides alga was fully characterized with FTIR, SEM, EDX, BET, BJH, and pHzpc techniques. The copper adsorption from aqueous media was done by three adsorbents of C. sertularioides-simple (CSS), C. sertularioides-Na2SO4 (CSN), and C. sertularioides-C5H11NO2S (CSC). The parameters of pH (2–6), adsorbent dosage (2–10 g/L), and contact time (3–80 min) were optimized at 5, 5 g/L, and 60 min, respectively. According to Langmuir isotherm (the best-fitted model), the maximum adsorption capacity of CSN (98.04 mg/g) was obtained 2.4 times higher than CSC (40.73 mg/g) and 9.5 times higher than CSS (10.29 mg/g). The Cu adsorption process by the adsorbents was best-fitted pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The CSN, CSC, and CSS biomasses were successfully reused 5, 4, and 4 times, respectively. The thermodynamic study revealed that the copper adsorption process by CSN is exothermic and non-spontaneous. Finally, the suitability of adsorbents prepared from algae was tested by cleaning a simulated wastewater.


Copper adsorption Caulerpa sertularioides Simulated wastewater Methionine Sodium sulfate Reusability 



The authors are grateful to the Bushehr University of Medical Sciences for funding this research (grant no. BPUMS-h-09).


  1. Adamczuk A, Kołodyńska D (2015) Equilibrium, thermodynamic and kinetic studies on removal of chromium, copper, zinc and arsenic from aqueous solutions onto fly ash coated by chitosan. Chem Eng J 274:200–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akbari M, Hallajisani A, Keshtkar AR, Shahbeig H, Ghorbanian SA (2015) Equilibrium and kinetic study and modeling of Cu(II) and Co(II) synergistic biosorption from Cu(II)-Co(II) single and binary mixtures on brown algae C. indica. J Environ Chem Eng 3: 140-149.Google Scholar
  3. Bilal M, Shah JA, Ashfaq T, Gardazi SMH, Tahir AA, Pervez A, Haroon H, Mahmood Q (2013) Waste biomass adsorbents for copper removal from industrial wastewater—a review. J Hazard Mater 263:322–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bulgariu D, Bulgariu L (2016) Potential use of alkaline treated algae waste biomass as sustainable biosorbent for clean recovery of cadmium (II) from aqueous media: batch and column studies. J Clean Prod 112:4525–4533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chang Y-C, Chen D-H (2005) Preparation and adsorption properties of monodisperse chitosan-bound Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles for removal of Cu (II) ions. J Colloid Interface Sci 283:446–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen Z, Ma W, Han M (2008) Biosorption of nickel and copper onto treated alga (Undaria pinnatifida): application of isotherm and kinetic models. J Hazard Mater 155:327–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cho HJ, Baek K, Jeon J-K, Park SH, Suh DJ, Park Y-K (2013) Removal characteristics of copper by marine macro-algae-derived chars. Chem Eng J 217:205–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clesceri LS, Greenberg AE, Eaton AD (1998) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th edn. APHA-AWWAWEF [APHA—American Public Health Association, AWWA—American Water Works Association, WEF—Water Environment Federation], Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  9. de Souza FB, de Lima Brandão H, Hackbarth FV, de Souza AAU, Boaventura RA, de Souza SMGU, Vilar VJ (2016) Marine macro-alga Sargassum cymosum as electron donor for hexavalent chromium reduction to trivalent state in aqueous solutions. Chem Eng J 283:903–910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Deng L, Zhu X, Wang X, Su Y, Su H (2007) Biosorption of copper (II) from aqueous solutions by green alga Cladophora fascicularis. Biodegradation 18:393–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dittert IM, Vilar VJP, da Silva EAB, de Souza SMAGU, de Souza AAU, Botelho CMS, Boaventura RAR (2013) Turning Laminaria digitata seaweed into a resource for sustainable and ecological removal of trivalent chromium ions from aqueous solutions. Clean Techn Environ Policy 15:955–965. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. El Hassouni H, Abdellaoui D, El Hani S, Bengueddour R (2014) Biosorption of cadmium (II) and copper (II) from aqueous solution using red alga (Osmundea pinnatifida) biomass. J Mater Environ Sci 5:967–974Google Scholar
  13. Esteves A, Valdman E, Leite S (2000) Repeated removal of cadmium and zinc from an industrial effluent by waste biomass Sargassum sp. Biotechnol Lett 22:499–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Foroutan R, Esmaeili H, Abbasi M, Rezakazemi M, Mesbah M (2017) Adsorption behavior of Cu (II) and Co (II) using chemically modified marine algae. Environ Technol 1–9, in pressGoogle Scholar
  15. Foroutan R, Mohammadi R, Ramavandi B (2018) Treatment of chromium-laden aqueous solution using CaCl2-modified Sargassum oligocystum biomass: characteristics, equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic studies. Korean J Chem Eng 35:234–245. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. García-Mateos FJ, Ruiz-Rosas R, Marqués MD, Cotoruelo LM, Rodríguez-Mirasol J, Cordero T (2015) Removal of paracetamol on biomass-derived activated carbon: modeling the fixed bed breakthrough curves using batch adsorption experiments. Chem Eng J 279:18–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hanif A, Bhatti HN, Hanif MA (2009) Removal and recovery of Cu (II) and Zn (II) using immobilized Mentha arvensis distillation waste biomass. Ecol Eng 35:1427–1434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Huang C-C, Su Y-J (2010) Removal of copper ions from wastewater by adsorption/electrosorption on modified activated carbon cloths. J Hazard Mater 175:477–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jin H, Hanif MU, Capareda S, Chang Z, Huang H, Ai Y (2016) Copper (II) removal potential from aqueous solution by pyrolysis biochar derived from anaerobically digested algae–dairy–manure and effect of KOH activation. J Environ Chem Eng 4:365–372. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kumar YP, King P, Prasad VSRK (2006) Comparison for adsorption modelling of copper and zinc from aqueous solution by Ulva fasciata sp. J Hazard Mater 137:1246–1251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Labidi A, Salaberria AM, Fernandes SC, Labidi J, Abderrabba M (2016) Adsorption of copper on chitin-based materials: kinetic and thermodynamic studies. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 65:140–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Liu Y, Cao Q, Luo F, Chen J (2009) Biosorption of Cd2+, Cu2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ ions from aqueous solutions by pretreated biomass of brown algae. J Hazard Mater 163:931–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liu X, Chen Z-Q, Han B, Su C-L, Han Q, Chen W-Z (2018) Biosorption of copper ions from aqueous solution using rape straw powders: optimization, equilibrium and kinetic studies. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 150:251–259. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Loukidou MX, Matis KA, Zouboulis AI, Liakopoulou-Kyriakidou M (2003) Removal of as (V) from wastewaters by chemically modified fungal biomass. Water Res 37:4544–4552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Luo F, Liu Y, Li X, Xuan Z, Ma J (2006) Biosorption of lead ion by chemically-modified biomass of marine brown algae Laminaria japonica. Chemosphere 64:1122–1127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Morcali MH, Zeytuncu B, Baysal A, Akman S, Yucel O (2014) Adsorption of copper and zinc from sulfate media on a commercial sorbent. J Environ Chem Eng 2:1655–1662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ngabura M, Hussain SA, Ghani WAWA, Jami MS, Tan YP (2018) Utilization of renewable durian peels for biosorption of zinc from wastewater. J Environ Chem Eng 6:2528–2539. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Papari F, Najafabadi PR, Ramavandi B (2017) Fluoride ion removal from aqueous solution, groundwater, and seawater by granular and powdered Conocarpus erectus biochar. Desal Water Treat 65:375–386. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ragan S, Megonnell N (2011) Activated carbon from renewable resources—lignin cellulose. Chem Technol 45:527Google Scholar
  30. Rajfur M, Klos A, Waclawek M (2012) Sorption of copper (II) ions in the biomass of alga Spirogyra sp. Bioelectrochem 87:65–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ramavandi B, Asgari G (2018) Comparative study of sun-dried and oven-dried Malva sylvestris biomass for high-rate Cu (II) removal from wastewater. Process Saf Environ Prot 116:61–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ramavandi B, Asgari G, Faradmal J, Sahebi S, Roshani B (2014) Abatement of Cr (VI) from wastewater using a new adsorbent, cantaloupe peel: Taguchi L16 orthogonal array optimization. Korean J Chem Eng 31:2207–2214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rezaee A, Ramavandi B, Ganati F (2006) Equilibrium and spectroscopic studies on biosorption of mercury by algae biomass. Pak J Biol Sci 9:777–782. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Saberzadeh Sarvestani F, Esmaeili H, Ramavandi B (2016) Modification of Sargassum angustifolium by molybdate during a facile cultivation for high-rate phosphate removal from wastewater: structural characterization and adsorptive behavior. 3 Biotech 6:251. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Saha GC, Hoque MIU, Miah MAM, Holze R, Chowdhury DA, Khandaker S, Chowdhury S (2017) Biosorptive removal of lead from aqueous solutions onto Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) as a low cost bioadsorbent: characterization, equilibria, kinetics and biosorption-mechanism studies. J Environ Chem Eng 5:2151–2162. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Shao H, Li Y, Zheng L, Chen T, Liu J (2017) Removal of methylene blue by chemically modified defatted brown algae Laminaria japonica. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 80:525–532. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Shroff KA, Vaidya VK (2011) Kinetics and equilibrium studies on biosorption of nickel from aqueous solution by dead fungal biomass of Mucor hiemalis. Chem Eng J 171:1234–1245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Son E-B, Poo K-M, Chang J-S, Chae K-J (2018) Heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions using engineered magnetic biochars derived from waste marine macro-algal biomass. Sci Total Environ 615:161–168. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sud D, Mahajan G, Kaur M (2008) Agricultural waste material as potential adsorbent for sequestering heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions—a review. Bioresour Technol 99:6017–6027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Teimouri A, Esmaeili H, Foroutan R, Ramavandi B (2018) Adsorptive performance of calcined Cardita bicolor for attenuating Hg (II) and As (III) from synthetic and real wastewaters. Korean J Chem Eng 35:479–488. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Vafajoo L, Cheraghi R, Dabbagh R, McKay G (2018) Removal of cobalt (II) ions from aqueous solutions utilizing the pre-treated 2-Hypnea Valentiae algae: equilibrium, thermodynamic, and dynamic studies. Chem Eng J 331:39–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Vijayaraghavan K, Yun Y-S (2008) Bacterial biosorbents and biosorption. Biotechnol Adv 26:266–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. White RL, White CM, Turgut H, Massoud A, Tian ZR (2018) Comparative studies on copper adsorption by graphene oxide and functionalized graphene oxide nanoparticles. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 85:18–28. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Xie X, Deng R, Pang Y, Bai Y, Zheng W, Zhou Y (2017) Adsorption of copper (II) by sulfur microparticles. Chem Eng J 314:434–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Yi Y, Lv J, Zhong N, Wu G (2017) Biosorption of Cu2+ by a novel modified spent Chrysanthemum: kinetics, isotherm and thermodynamics. J Environ Chem Eng 5:4151–4156. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental Health Engineering Department, Faculty of HealthBushehr University of Medical SciencesBushehrIran
  2. 2.Systems Environmental Health and Energy Research Center, The Persian Gulf Biomedical Sciences Research InstituteBushehr University of Medical SciencesBushehrIran
  3. 3.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of HealthBushehr University of MedicalSciencesBushehrIran
  4. 4.The Persian Gulf Marine Biotechnology Research Center, The Persian Gulf Biomedical Sciences Research InstituteBushehr University of Medical SciencesBushehrIran
  5. 5.Department of Chemical EngineeringIslamic Azad University, Bushehr BranchBushehrIran
  6. 6.Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering and Applied ScienceUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA
  7. 7.HSE DepartmentNational Petrochemical CompanyTehranIran
  8. 8.Department of Biochemistry, The Persian Gulf Biotechnology Research CenterBushehr University of Medical SciencesBushehrIran

Personalised recommendations