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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 4116–4129 | Cite as

Biochemical, molecular, and elemental profiling of Withania somnifera L. with response to zinc stress

  • Jyoti Ranjan RoutEmail author
  • Rout George Kerry
  • Debasna Panigrahi
  • Santi Lata Sahoo
  • Chinmay Pradhan
  • Shidharth Sankar Ram
  • Anindita Chakraborty
  • Mathummal Sudarshan
Research Article
  • 131 Downloads

Abstract

Zn stress seriously induces various toxic responses in Withania somnifera L., when accumulated above the threshold level which was confirmed by investigating the responses of protein, expression of antioxidant enzymes, and elemental profiling on accumulation of Zn. Zn was supplemented in the form of ZnSO4 (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μM) through MS liquid medium and allowed to grow the in vitro germinated plants for 7 and 14 days. The study revealed that when the application of Zn increased, a significant reduction of growth characteristics was noticed with alterations of proteins (both disappearance and de novo synthesis). The activity of CAT, SOD, and GPX were increased up to certain concentrations and then declined, which confirmed through in-gel activity under different treatments. RT-PCR was conducted by taking three sets of genes from CAT (RsCat, Catalase1, Cat1) and SOD (SodCp, TaSOD1.2, MnSOD) and found that gene RsCat from CAT and MnSOD from SOD have shown maximum expression of desired genes under Zn stress, which indicate plant’s stress tolerance mechanisms. The proton-induced X-ray emission study confirmed an increasing order of uptake of Zn in plants by suppressing and expressing other elemental constituents which cause metal homeostasis. This study provides insights into molecular mechanisms associated with Zn causing toxicity to plants; however, cellular and subcellular studies are essential to explore molecule-molecule interaction during Zn stress in plants.

Keywords

Antioxidant enzymes Ashwagandha Gene expression Phytotoxicity PIXE Zinc excess 

Abbreviations

Zn

Zinc

MS

Murashige and Skoog

RT-PCR

Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction

CAT

Catalase

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

PIXE

Proton-induced X-ray emission

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SDS-PAGE

Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

EDTA

Ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid

GPX

Guaiacol peroxidase

POD

Peroxidase

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to the Director, Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, for providing PIXE facility to study the metal analysis.

Funding information

This study received financial support from UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata, India (Grant No. UGC-DAE-CSR-KC/CRS/2009/TE-01/1539).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jyoti Ranjan Rout
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  • Rout George Kerry
    • 2
  • Debasna Panigrahi
    • 3
  • Santi Lata Sahoo
    • 4
  • Chinmay Pradhan
    • 4
  • Shidharth Sankar Ram
    • 5
  • Anindita Chakraborty
    • 5
  • Mathummal Sudarshan
    • 5
  1. 1.School of Biological SciencesAIPH UniversityBhubaneswarIndia
  2. 2.Post Graduate Department of BiotechnologyUtkal UniversityBhubaneswarIndia
  3. 3.Department of Life ScienceNational Institute of Technology RourkelaRourkelaIndia
  4. 4.Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Post Graduate Department of BotanyUtkal UniversityBhubaneswarIndia
  5. 5.UGC-DAE Consortium of Scientific ResearchKolkata CentreKolkataIndia

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