Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 4878–4889 | Cite as

Reduced ecotoxicity and improved biodegradability of cationic biocides based on ester-functionalized pyridinium ionic liquids

  • Maria Trush
  • Larysa Metelytsia
  • Ivan Semenyuta
  • Larysa Kalashnikova
  • Oleksiy Papeykin
  • Irina Venger
  • Oksana Tarasyuk
  • Larysa Bodachivska
  • Volodymyr Blagodatnyi
  • Sergiy RogalskyEmail author
Research Article


Ester-functionalized pyridinium ionic liquids (ILs), 1-decyloxycarbonylmethylpyridinium chloride (PyrСOOC10-Cl), and 1-dodecyloxycarbonylmethylpyridinium chloride (PyrСOOC12-Cl) have been synthesized and studied for their environmental toxicity. Simple long-chain pyridinium ILs, 1-dodecylpyridinium chloride (PyrC12-Cl), and commercial disinfectant cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) were used as reference compounds. Both ester-functionalized ILs and CPC showed significantly reduced antibacterial activity compared to PyrC12-Cl. However, ester-functionalized ILs were found to have excellent antifungal activity towards Candida albicans fungus strains, similar to PyrC12-Cl and much higher than for CPC. The molecular docking of ILs in the active site of the known antifungal target N-myristoyltransferase (Nmt) C. albicans has been conducted. The obtained results indicate the possibility of ILs binding into the Nmt pocket. The high stability of the complexes, especially for PyrCOOC10-Cl, is ensured by hydrogen bonding, electrostatic anion-pi interactions, as well as hydrophobic pi-alkyl and alkyl interactions that was confirmed by calculated binding energy values. The acute toxicity studies of ester-functionalized ILs on D. rerio (zebrafish) hydrobiont have shown their dramatically reduced ecotoxicity compared to PyrC12-Cl and CPC. Thus, LD50 values of 15.2 mg/L and 16.8 mg/L were obtained for PyrCOOC10-Cl and PyrCOOC12-Cl, respectively, whereas CPC had LD50 value of 0.018 mg/L. The primary biodegradation test CEC L-33-A93 of ILs indicated an improved biodegradability of ester-functionalized compounds compared to simple long-chain ILs. Based on the obtained results, PyrCOOC10-Cl may be considered as very promising cationic biocide due to the combination of soft antimicrobial activity and reduced ecotoxicity, as well as improved biodegradability.


Pyridinium ionic liquids Ester-functionalized Antimicrobial activity Molecular docking, N-myristoyltranferase, ecotoxicity, biodegradability 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Trush
    • 1
  • Larysa Metelytsia
    • 1
  • Ivan Semenyuta
    • 1
  • Larysa Kalashnikova
    • 1
  • Oleksiy Papeykin
    • 1
  • Irina Venger
    • 1
  • Oksana Tarasyuk
    • 1
  • Larysa Bodachivska
    • 1
  • Volodymyr Blagodatnyi
    • 2
  • Sergiy Rogalsky
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.V. P. Kukhar Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry and Petrochemistry of National Academy of Science of UkraineKyivUkraine
  2. 2.Shupyk National Medical Academy of Postgraduate EducationKyivUkraine

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