Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 4890–4900 | Cite as

Sustainable utilization of a recovered struvite/diatomite compound for lead immobilization in contaminated soil: potential, mechanism, efficiency, and risk assessment

  • Huan-Ping Jing
  • Xuejiang WangEmail author
  • Peng Xia
  • Jianfu Zhao
Research Article


A waste–struvite/diatomite compound (MAP@Dia) recovered from nutrient-rich wastewater treated by MgO-modified diatomite (MgO@Dia) was provided to immobilize lead in aqueous solution and contaminated soil. The mechanism and effectiveness of lead immobilization was investigated, and the pHstat leaching test and fixed-bed column experiments were carried out to assess the risk of MAP@Dia reuse for lead immobilization. The results showed that MAP@Dia were effective in immobilizing lead in aqueous solution with adsorption capacity of 832.47–946.50 mg/g. The main mechanism of Pb immobilization by MAP@Dia could be contributed by surface complexation and dissolution of struvite followed by precipitation of hydroxypyromorphite Pb10(PO4)6(OH)2. Lead(II) concentration reduced from 269.61 to 78.26 mg/kg, and residual lead(II) increased to 53.14% in contaminated soil when the MAP@Dia application rate was 5%. The increased neutralization capacity (ANC) and lower lead extraction yields in pHstat leaching test in amended soil suggested 5 times of buffering capacity against potential acidic stresses and delayed triggering of “chemical time bombs.” The results of column studies demonstrated that amendment with MAP@Dia could reduce the risk of lead and phosphorus (P) leaching. This study revealed that MAP@Dia could provide an effective solution for both P recycling and lead immobilization in contaminated soil.


P reuse Lead immobilization Struvite Risk assessment Diatomite Soil 


Funding information

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41571301, No. 51678421, and No. 21777120).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Huan-Ping Jing
    • 1
  • Xuejiang Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Peng Xia
    • 1
  • Jianfu Zhao
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering; Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological SecurityTongji UniversityShanghaiChina

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