Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 4730–4745 | Cite as

Synthesis of novel waste batteries-sawdust-based adsorbent via a two-stage activation method for Pb2+ removal

  • Zhirui NiuEmail author
  • Shaokang Zhang
  • Mengfan Ma
  • Zhenyang Wang
  • Hanyang Zhao
  • Yingying Wang
Research Article


The novel waste alkaline battery-sawdust-based adsorbents (WABAs) are prepared by a two-stage activation method with the negative electrode materials as activator and different doping ratio of the positive electrode materials and pine sawdust as raw materials. The characteristics of the WABAs are analyzed by SEM, XRD, FT-IR, and specific surface determination (SBET). The Pb2+ adsorption properties of the WABAs are studied by changing the pH of solution, contact time, initial concentration, and temperature. It turns out that when the doping mass ratio is 1:4, the optimum performance of the WABAs is obtained, and comparing with the samples prepared by pure biomass, the iodine adsorption value, total acid groups, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) separately increased by 13, 106, and 22%, respectively. Kinetic studies show that the pseudo-second-order model is more suitable for describing the Pb2+ adsorption process and the Langmuir isotherm provides better fitting to the equilibrium data. The thermodynamic parameters indicate the adsorption process would be spontaneous and endothermic. Besides, the prepared WABAs could be reused for 5 cycles with high removal efficiency. This study provides an alternative route for waste alkaline battery treatment.

Graphical abstract

The schematic diagram of synthesis of waste batteries-sawdust-based adsorbent via a two-stage activation method for Pb2+ removal


Waste batteries Biomass Adsorbent Adsorption Lead 



We highly appreciate financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21866031), the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province of China (No. 2018JM2054), Special Scientific Research Project of Education Department of Shaanxi Province (No. 18JK0879), Yan’an University Doctor Scientific Research Start Fund Project (No. YDBK2017), Yan’an University Guiding Project (No. YDY2017-10), and Yan’an University Undergraduate Training Programs for Innovation and Entrepreneurship (No. D2017110).

Supplementary material

11356_2018_3883_MOESM1_ESM.doc (2.8 mb)
ESM 1 (DOC 2823 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhirui Niu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shaokang Zhang
    • 1
  • Mengfan Ma
    • 1
  • Zhenyang Wang
    • 1
  • Hanyang Zhao
    • 1
  • Yingying Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Petroleum and Environmental EngineeringYan’an UniversityYan’anPeople’s Republic of China

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