Recycled gypsum board acted as a mineral swelling agent for improving thermal conductivity characteristics in manufacturing of green lightweight building brick

  • Kung-Yuh ChiangEmail author
  • Huei-Ru Yen
  • Cheng-Han Lu
Appropriate Technologies to Combat Water Pollution


Lightweight building bricks manufactured from non-hazardous residues incorporating mineral foaming agents have been successfully developed over past two decades. Very little information is available on recycling and reutilization of construction and demolition waste used as the pore foaming agent in manufacturing lightweight brick. In this research, the mineral swelling agent was gypsum board recycled from construction and demolition waste. The mineral swelling agent effect on the characteristics of green lightweight building materials sintered from drinking water purification (DWP) sludge was investigated. Green lightweight building materials were contained up to 50% (wt%) mineral swelling agent and fired at a temperature ranged between 950 °C and 1050 °C. The experimental results indicated that lightweight building materials have successfully sintered between 1000 °C and 1020 °C and added up to 40% (wt%) recycled gypsum board. The sintered building materials have the characteristics of relatively high compressive strength, low bulk density, and thermal conductivity that were in compliance with relevant Taiwan criteria for application in lightweight building materials. To further consider the eco-friendly and environmental safety of lightweight building materials, the recycled gypsum board can act as a good mineral swelling agent, but can also enhance the chemical stabilization and reduce the metals leachability of lightweight materials based on acidic neutralization capacity (ANC) analysis results. To estimate the carbon dioxide emission in manufacturing and transportation of lightweight materials that sintered this experimental conditions, the estimated carbon dioxide reduction rates were approximately 28.6% and 16.7%, respectively, as a result of the energy saving. Experimental results have confirmed that the feasibility of recycled gypsum board used as a swelling agent and good potential for construction works in green lightweight building materials.


Sintering Gypsum board Drinking water purification sludge Construction and demolition waste Lightweight building brick 



The authors would like to thank the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Taiwan, for financially supporting this work.


  1. Abali Y, Yurdusev MA, Zeybek MS, Kumanlıoğlu AA (2007) Using phosphogypsume and boron concentrator wastes in light brick production. Constr Build Mater 21:52–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abbas S, Saleem MA, Kazmi SMS, Munir MJ (2017) Production of sustainable clay bricks using waste fly ash: mechanical and durability properties. Journal of Building Engineering 14:7–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baspinar MS, Kahraman E, Gorhan G, Demir I (2010) Production of fired construction from high sulfate-containing fly ash with boric acid addition. Waste Manag Res 28:4–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bianchini G, Marochino E, Tassinari R, Vaccaro C (2005) Recycling of construction and demolition waste materials: a chemical-mineralogical appraisal. Waste Manag 25:149–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bories C, Borredon M, Vedrenne E (2014) Development of eco-friendly porous fired bricks using pore-forming agents: a review. J Environ Manag 143:186–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Celik AG, Depci T, Kilic AM (2014) New lightweight colemanite-added perlite brick and comparison of its physicomechanical properties with other commercial lightweight materials. Constr Build Mater 62:59–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cetin S, Marangoni M, Bernardo E (2015) Light glass-ceramic tiles from the sintering of mining tailings. Ceram Int 41:5294–5300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cheeseman CR, Makinde A, Bethanis S (2005) Properties of lightweight aggregate produced by rapid sintering of incinerator bottom ash. Resour Conserv Recycl 43:147–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen R, Li Y, Xiang R, Li S (2016) Effect of particle size of fly ash on the properties of lightweight insulation materials. Constr Build Mater 123:120–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chiang KY, Chien KL, Hwang SJ (2008) Study on the characteristics of building bricks produced from reservoir sediment. J Hazard Mater 159:499–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chiang KY, Chou PH, Hua CR, Chien KL, Cheeseman C (2009) Lightweight bricks manufactured from water treatment sludge and rice husks. J Hazard Mater 171:76–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chiang KY, Chen YC, Chien KL (2010) Scrap glass effect on building materials characteristics manufactured from water treatment plant sludge. Environ Eng Sci 27:137–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cultrone G, Sebastián E (2009) Fly ash addition in clayey materials to improve the quality of solid bricks. Constr Build Mater 23:1178–1184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Eliche-Quesada D, Martínez-García C, Martínez-Cartas ML, Cotes-Palomino MT, Pérez-Villarejo L, Cruz-Pérez N, Corpas-Iglesias FA (2011) The use of different forms of waste in the manufacture of ceramic bricks. Appl Clay Sci 52:270–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Eliche-Quesada D, Felipe-Sese MA, Lopez-Pérez JA, Infantes-Molina A (2017) Characterization and evaluation of rice husk ash and wood ash in sustainable clay matrix bricks. Ceram Int 43:463–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Emrullahoglu Abi CB (2014) Effect of borogypsum on brick properties. Constr Build Mater 59:195–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Furlani E, Brückner S, Minichelli D, Maschio S (2008) Synthesis and characterization of ceramics from coal fly ash and incinerated paper mill sludge. Ceram Int 34:2137–2142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Galan-Arboledas RJ, Cotes-Palomino MT, Bueno S, Martínez-García C (2017) Evaluation of spent diatomite incorporation in clay based materials for lightweight bricks processing. Constr Build Mater 144:327–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Galbenis CT, Tsimas S (2006) Use of construction and demolition wastes as raw material in cement clinker production. China Particuology 4:83–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. García-Ten J, Saburit A, Bernardo E, Colombo P (2012) Development of lightweight porcelain stoneware tiles using foaming agents. J Eur Ceram Soc 32:745–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Juel MAI, Mizan A, Ahmed T (2017) Sustainable use of tannery sludge in brick manufacturing in Bangladesh. Waste Manag 60:259–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kazmi SMS, Abbas S, Munir MJ, Khitab A (2016a) Exporatory study on the effect of waste rice husk and sugarcane bagasse ashes in burnt clay bricks. Journal of Building Engineering 7:372–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kazmi SMS, Abbas S, Saleem MA, Munir MJ, Khitab A (2016b) Manufacturing of sustainable clay bricks: Utilization of waste sugarcane bagasse and rice husk ashes. Constr Build Mater 120:29–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kazmi SMS, Abbas S, Nehdi ML, Salleem MA, Munir MJ (2017a) Feasibility of using waste glass sludge in production of ecofriendly clay bricks. J Mater Civ Eng 29:1–12.
  25. Kazmi SMS, Munir MJ, Abbas S, Saleem MA, Khitab A, Rizwan M (2017b) Development of lighter and eco-friendly burnt clay bricks incorporating sugarcane bagasse ash. Par J Engg & Appl Sci 21:1–5Google Scholar
  26. Kazmi SMS, Munir MJ, Patnaikuni I, Wu YF, Fawad U (2018a) Thermal performance enhancement of eco-friendly bricks incorporating agro-wastes. Energy and Building 158:1117–1129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kazmi SMS, Munir MJ, Wu YF, Hanif A, Patnaikuni I (2018b) Thermal performance evaluation of eco-friendly bricks incorporating waste glass sludge. J Clean Prod 172:1867–1880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Liang HH, Li JL (2015) The influence of hydration and swelling properties of gypsum on the preparation of lightweight brick using water supply reservoir sediment. Constr Build Mater 94:691–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lin CF, Wu CH, Ho HM (2006) Recovery of municipal waste incineration bottom ash and water treatment sludge to water permeable pavement materials. Waste Manag 26:970–978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Liu T, Tang Y, Li Z, Wu T, Lu A (2016) Red mud and fly ash incorporation for lightweight foamed ceramics using lead-zinc mine tailings as foaming agent. Mater Lett 183:362–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Loryuenyong V, Panyachai T, Kaewsimork K, Siritai C (2009) Effects of recycled glass substitution on the physical and mechanical properties of clay bricks. Waste Manag 29:2717–2721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Luo Y, Zheng S, Ma S, Liu C, Wang X (2018) Preparation of sintered foamed ceramics derived entirely from coal fly ash. Constr Build Mater 163:529–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Madurwar MV, Ralegaonkar RV, Mandavgane SA (2013) Application of agro-waste for sustainable construction materials: a review. Constr Build Mater 38:872–878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mandal AK, Verma HR, Sinha OP (2017) Utilization of aluminum plant’s waste for production of insulation bricks. J Clean Prod 162:949–957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Monteiro SN, Vieira CMF (2014) On the production of fired clay bricks from waste materials: a critical update. Constr Build Mater 68:599–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Munir MJ, Kazmi SMS, Wu YF, Hanif A, Khan MUA (2018a) Thermally efficient fired clay bricks incorporating waste marble sludge: an industrial-scale study. J Clean Prod 174:1122–1135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Munir MJ, Abbas S, Nehdi ML, Kazmi SMS, Anwar K (2018b) Development of eco-friendly fired bricks incorporating recycled marble powder. J Mater Civ Eng 30(5):1–11.
  38. Novais RM, Seabra MP, Labrincha JA (2015) Wood waste incorporation for lightweight porcelain stoneware tiles with tailored thermal conductivity. J Clean Prod 90:66–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pimraksa K, Chindaprasirt P (2009) Lightweight bricks made of diatomaceous earth. lime and gypsum Ceram Int 35:471–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. La Rubia-Garcia MD, Yebra-Rodriguez A, Eliche-Quesada D, Corpas-Iglesias FA, Lopez-Galindo A (2012) Assessment of olive mill residue (pomace) as an additive in lightweight brick application. Constr Build Mater 36: 495–500.Google Scholar
  41. Sakhare VV, Ralegaonkar RV (2016) Use of bio-briquette ash for the development of bricks. J Clean Prod 112:684–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Saleem MA, Kazmi SMS, Abbas S (2017) Clay bricks prepared with sugarcane bagasse and rice husk ash- a sustainable solution. MATEC Web Conf 120:03001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sutcu M, Akkurt S (2009) The use of recycled paper processing residues in making porous brick with reduced thermal conductivity. Ceram Int 35:2625–2631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Taha Y, Benzaazoua M, Hakkou R, Mansori M (2016) Natural clay substitution by calamine processing wastes to manufacture fired bricks. J Clean Prod 135:847–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Taiwan EPA, 2017. Website of Industrial Waste Report and Management System on Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration, Accessed 19 Dec 2017
  46. Ukwatta A, Mohajerani A (2017) Characterisation of fired-clay bricks incorporating biosolids and the effect of heating rate on properties of bricks. Constr Build Mater 142:11–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zhang Z, Zhang L, Li A (2015) Development of a sintering process for recycling oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash into glass ceramic composite. Waste Manag 38:185–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate Institute of Environmental EngineeringNational Central UniversityTao-Yuan CityTaiwan
  2. 2.Green Energy Development CenterFeng-Chia UniversityTai-Chung CityTaiwan

Personalised recommendations