Advertisement

The potential impact of unsaturation degree of the biodiesels obtained from beverage and food processing biomass streams on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics in a single-cylinder CI engine

  • Prabhu Chelladorai
  • Edwin Geo Varuvel
  • Leenus Jesu Martin
  • Bedhannan Nagalingam
Research Article
  • 30 Downloads

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to experimentally investigate the effect of unsaturation of the biodiesels obtained from grapeseed oil, wheat germ oil and coconut oil (reference fuel) for compression ignition (CI) engine application. Fatty acid profile analysis and physio-chemical properties were determined by standard test procedures. Engine testing was carried out in a 5.2-kW single-cylinder CI engine and the combustion, performance and emission characteristics were analysed. The effect of fuel property variation and the combustion reaction kinetics due to unsaturation difference have been discussed. The maximum brake thermal efficiency at full load for diesel was found to be 32.3% followed by 31.3%, 30.2% and 27.4 %, respectively, for coconut biodiesel (CBD), grapeseed biodiesel (GSBD) and wheat germ biodiesel (WGBD). Maximum heat release rate as observed for diesel, CBD, GSBD and WGBD are 63.2 J/°CA 60.7 J/°CA and 59 J/°CA and 43.4 J/°CA respectively. The brake-specific NO emission at full load is higher for CBD followed by GSBD, WGBD and diesel having values of 9.23 g/kWh, 8.91 g/kWh, 8.21 g/kWh and 7.6 g/kWh respectively. Conversely, the smoke emission is lower for CBD compared to the other tested fuels.

Keywords

Winery waste Wheat milling by-product Grapeseed biodiesel Wheat germ biodiesel Unsaturation Combustion and kinetics Compression ignition engine 

References

  1. Aggarwal SK (2018) Effect of fuel unsaturation on emissions in flames and diesel engines. Green Energy and Technology:51–76.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-7473-8_3
  2. Benjumea P, Agudelo JR, Agudelo AF (2011) Effect of the degree of unsaturation of biodiesel fuels on engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions. Energy Fuel 25(1):77–85.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ef101096x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bowman CT (1975) Kinetics of pollutant formation and destruction in combustion. Prog Energy Combust Sci 1(1):33–45.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0360-1285(75)90005-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Canakci M (2007) The potential of restaurant waste lipids as biodiesel feedstocks. Bioresour Technol 98(1):183–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cheng, W. L., Lee, C. F., & Ruan, D. F. (2008). Comparisons of combustion characteristics of biodiesels in a high speed direct injection diesel engine (No. 2008-01-1638). SAE Technical Paper.Google Scholar
  6. Coleman HW, Steele WG (2009) Experimentation, validation, and uncertainty analysis for engineers. John Wiley & SonsGoogle Scholar
  7. Das DD, McEnally CS, Pfefferle LD (2015) Sooting tendencies of unsaturated esters in non-premixed flames. Com ustion and Flame 162(4):1489–1497.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2014.11.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dayma G, Halter F, Foucher F, Mounaim-Rousselle C, Dagaut P (2012) Laminar burning velocities of C4–C7 ethyl esters in a spherical combustion chamber: experimental and detailed kinetic modeling. Energy Fuel 26(11):6669–6677.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ef301254q CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Demirbas A (2009) Progress and recent trends in biodiesel fuels. Energy Convers Manag 50(1):14–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Demirbas A (2011) Competitive liquid biofuels from biomass. Appl Energy 88(1):17–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Devesa-Rey R, Vecino X, Varela-Alende JL, Barral MT, Cruz JM, Moldes AB (2011) Valorization of winery waste vs. the costs of not recycling. Waste Manag 31(11):2327–2335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fernández CM, Ramos MJ, Pérez Á, Rodríguez JF (2010) Production of biodiesel from winery waste: extraction, refining and transesterification of grape seed oil. Bioresour Technol 101(18):7019–7024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fisher EM, Pitz WJ, Curran HJ, Westbrook CK (2000) Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms for combustion of oxygenated fuels. Proc Combust Inst 28(2):1579–1586.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0082-0784(00)80555-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Görner C, Redai V, Bracharz F, Schrepfer P, Garbe D, Brück T (2016) Genetic engineering and production of modified fatty acids by the non-conventional oleaginous yeast Trichosporon oleaginosus ATCC 20509. Green Chem 18(7):2037–2046.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c5gc01767j CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Graboski MS, McCormick RL (1998) Combustion of fat and vegetable oil derived fuels in diesel engines. Prog Energy Combust Sci 24(2):125–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Grana R, Frassoldati A, Saggese C, Faravelli T, Ranzi E (2012) A wide range kinetic modeling study of pyrolysis and oxidation of methyl butanoate and methyl decanoate – note II: lumped kinetic model of decomposition and combustion of methyl esters up to methyl decanoate. Combustion and Flame 159(7):2280–2294.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2012.02.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lapuerta M, Armas O, Rodriguez-Fernandez J (2008) Effect of the degree of unsaturation of biodiesel fuels on NOx and particulate emissions. SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants 1(1):1150–1158.  https://doi.org/10.4271/2008-01-1676
  18. Lin CSK, Koutinas AA, Stamatelatou K, Mubofu EB, Matharu AS, Kopsahelis N et al (2014) Current and future trends in food waste valorization for the production of chemicals, materials and fuels: a global perspective. Biofuels Bioprod Biorefin 8(5):686–715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mahmoud AA, Mohdaly AAA, Elneairy NAA (2015) Wheat germ: an overview on nutritional value, antioxidant potential and antibacterial characteristics. Food Nutr Sci 06(02):265–277.  https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2015.62027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Masimalai SK, Venkatesan K (2014) Experimental investigations on a diesel engine using coconut shell pyro oil (CSPO)-diesel blends as fuel (No. 2014-01-1377). SAE Technical Paper.Google Scholar
  21. Meng X, Chen G, Wang Y (2008) Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil via alkali catalyst and its engine test. Fuel Process Technol 89(9):851–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mirabella N, Castellani V, Sala S (2014) Current options for the valorization of food manufacturing waste: a review. J Clean Prod 65:28–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mofijur M, Atabani AE, Masjuki HA, Kalam MA, Masum BM (2013) A study on the effects of promising edible and non-edible biodiesel feedstocks on engine performance and emissions production: a comparative evaluation. Renew Sust Energ Rev 23:391–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mrad N, Varuvel EG, Tazerout M, Aloui F (2012) Effects of biofuel from fish oil industrial residue–Diesel blends in diesel engine. Energy 44(1):955–963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Puhan S, Saravanan N, Nagarajan G, Vedaraman N (2010) Effect of biodiesel unsaturated fatty acid on combustion characteristics of a DI compression ignition engine. Biomass Bioenergy 34(8):1079–1088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sahoo PK, Das LM (2009) Combustion analysis of Jatropha, Karanja and Polanga based biodiesel as fuel in a diesel engine. Fuel 88(6):994–999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Schönborn A, Ladommatos N, Williams J, Allan R, Rogerson J (2009) The influence of molecular structure of fatty acid monoalkyl esters on diesel combustion. Combustion and Flame 156(7):1396–1412.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2009.03.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Selvam DJP, Vadivel K (2012) Performance and emission analysis of DI diesel engine fuelled with methyl esters of beef tallow and diesel blends. Procedia Engineering 38:342–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Stansell GR, Gray VM, Sym SD (2011) Microalgal fatty acid composition: implications for biodiesel quality. J Appl Phycol 24(4):791–801.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-011-9696-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tat ME, Wang PS, Van Gerpen JH, Clemente TE (2007) Exhaust emissions from an engine fueled with biodiesel from high-oleic soybeans. J Am Oil Chem Soc 84(9):865–869.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-007-1109-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Vallinayagam R, Vedharaj S, Yang WM, Lee PS, Chua KJE, Chou SK (2013) Combustion performance and emission characteristics study of pine oil in a diesel engine. Energy 57:344–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Westbrook CK, Dryer FL (1984) Chemical kinetic modeling of hydrocarbon combustion. Prog Energy Combust Sci 10(1):1–57.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0360-1285(84)90118-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Westbrook CK, Pitz WJ, Curran HJ (2006) Chemical kinetic modeling study of the effects of oxygenated hydrocarbons on soot emissions from diesel engines. J Phys Chem A 110(21):6912–6922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yang B, Westbrook CK, Cool TA, Hansen N, Kohse-Höinghaus K (2011) The effect of carbon–carbon double bonds on the combustion chemistry of small fatty acid esters. Z Phys Chem 225(11-12):1293–1314.  https://doi.org/10.1524/zpch.2011.0167 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Yusuf NNAN, Kamarudin SK, Yaakub Z (2011) Overview on the current trends in biodiesel production. Energy Convers Manag 52(7):2741–2751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zacharof MP (2017) Grape winery waste as feedstock for bioconversions: applying the biorefinery concept. Waste and biomass valorization 8(4):1011–1025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zádor J, Taatjes CA, Fernandes RX (2011) Kinetics of elementary reactions in low temperature autoignition chemistry. Prog Energy Combust Sci 37(4):371–421.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2010.06.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Prabhu Chelladorai
    • 1
  • Edwin Geo Varuvel
    • 1
  • Leenus Jesu Martin
    • 1
  • Bedhannan Nagalingam
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Automobile EngineeringSRM Institute of Science and TechnologyChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations