Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 5189–5201 | Cite as

Assessment of some heavy metal accumulation and nutritional quality of shellfish with reference to human health and cancer risk assessment: a seafood safety approach

  • Noor Us SaherEmail author
  • Nayab Kanwal
Research Article
  • 75 Downloads

Abstract

This study was conducted to assess the proximate analysis (protein, carbohydrate, lipid, and moisture content) and concentration levels of metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Cr) in the muscles of selected shellfish (Portunus reticulatus, P. segnis, P. sanguinolentus, Scylla olivaceae, Penaeus monodon, and P. indicus) species. The concentration of metals showed significant difference (p > 0.05) among species. The detected concentrations of the analyzed heavy metals were below the daily intake and legal limits set by national and international standards. The THQs and CR index were calculated to evaluate the risk estimation of the metal contamination associated with the human health. The THQ values of all metals were below 1 in all species, indicated that there is no risk of adverse health effect, but the risk of elevated intakes of heavy metals adversely affecting food safety for the studied species. The CR index indicated that Cd and Pb caused the greatest cancer risk. The correlation and multivariate (principle component analysis) among metal concentration and nutritional quality were also evaluated. The carbohydrate and moisture showed the positive correlation (p > 0.05) with metals. The biochemical results of the present work clearly indicate that there was a significant difference in the muscles of shellfish. It was concluded that more effective controls should be focused on Cd and Pb to reduce pollution for quality and seafood safety concern.

Keywords

Biochemical composition Risk assessment Food safety Metals toxicity Multivariate statistics Nutritional quality Shellfish 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Heather Rich, teaching assistant, School of life Sciences, Arizona State University, USA, for the language improvement of manuscript. This research is financially supported by HEC (Higher Education Commission) Pakistan through Access to Scientific Instrument program. We are also thankful to Centralized Science Laboratories, University of Karachi, for service provider.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Ahmed Q, Bat L, Yousuf F (2015) Heavy metals in Terapon puta (Cuvier, 1982) from Karachi coasts, Pakistan. J Mar Bio Article, ID 132768, 5,  https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/137268
  2. AOAC (2010) Official methods of analysis. In: 18th edition, Publisher name: Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Publisher Location, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  3. Balfour S, Kwafi A, Manima S (2012) Methodology for agrochemical analysis of soils for establishing the needs for amendments. ICPA press, Bucharest, pp 57–58Google Scholar
  4. Bat L, Öztekin HC, Üstün F (2015) Heavy metal levels in four commercial fishes caught in Sinop coasts of the Black Sea, Turkey. Turk J Fish Aquat Sci 15:393–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beck NB, Becker RA, Erraguntla N et al (2016) Approaches for describing and communicating overall uncertainty in toxicity characterizations: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's integrated risk information system (IRIS) as a case study. Environ Int 89–90:110–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bervoets L, Blust R, Verheyen R (2001) Accumulation of metals in the tissues of three Spined Stickel back (Gastrosteus aculeatus) from natural fresh waters. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 48(2):117–127.  https://doi.org/10.1006/eesa.2000.2010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bogdanovic T, Ujevic I, Sedak M, Listeš E, Šimat V, Petricevic S, Poljak V (2014) As, cd, hg and Pb in four edible shellfish species from breeding and harvesting areas along the eastern Adriatic coast, Croatia. Food Chem 146:197–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bosch AC, Neill BO, Sigge GO, Kerwath SE, Hoffman LC (2008) Heavy metal accumulation and toxicity in smooth hound (Mustelus mustelus) shark from Langebaan Lagoon, South Africa. Food Chem 190:871–878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cresson P, Trolet MT, Rouquette M, Timmerman CA, Giraldo C, Lefebvre S, Ernande B (2017) Underestimation of chemical contamination in marine fish muscle tissue can be reduced by considering variable wet:dry weight ratios. Mar Pollut Bull 123(1–2):279–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dhanakumar S, Solaraj G, Mohanraj R (2015) Heavy metal partitioning in sediments and bioaccumulation in commercial fish species of three major reservoirs of river Cauvery delta region, India. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 113:145–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Domingo JL, Bocio A, Falcó G, Llobet JM (2006) Benefits and risks of fish consumption part I. A quantitative analysis of the intake of omega-3 fatty acids and chemical contaminants. Toxicol 230(2–3):219–226Google Scholar
  12. Donnachie RL, Johnson AC, Moeckel C, Pereira MG, Sumpter JP (2014) Using risk-ranking of metals to identify which poses the greatest threat to freshwater organisms in the UK. Environ Pollut 194:17–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dubois M, Gills KA, Hamitton JK, Rebers PA, Smith F (1956) Colorimetric Method for Determination of Sugars and Related Substances. Anal Chem 28:350–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. European Food Safety Authority (2013) FAQ on Chemicals in Food. Available at: http:// www.efsa.europa.eu/en/faqs/faqchemicalsinfood.htm
  15. FAO (2001) Codex Alimentarius commission food additives and contaminants. FAO/WHO, Rome, Italy. ALINORM 01(12A):1–289Google Scholar
  16. FAO (2003) Heavy Metals Regulations Legal Notice No 66/2003Google Scholar
  17. FAO/WHO (2011) Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on the Risks and Benefits of Fish Consumption. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, World Health Organization, Geneva, pp 50Google Scholar
  18. FDA (2001) Fish and fisheries products hazards and controls guidance. US Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Chapter 9, Environmental chemical Contaminants and Pesticides http://www.fda.gov/food/guidance compliance regulatory information/guidance documents /seafood /fish and fisheries products hazards and controls guide/default.htm
  19. FDA (2011) Fish and fisheries products hazards and controls guidance, third ed. center for food safety and applied nutrition. US Food and Drug AdministrationGoogle Scholar
  20. Folch J, Loes M, Stanley GHS (1956) J Biol Chem 226:496–509Google Scholar
  21. Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) (2008) Australia New Zealand food standards code (incorporating amendments up to and including amendment 97). Anstat Pty Ltd., MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  22. Ginsberg GL, Toal BF (2009) Quantitative approach for incorporating methylmercury risks and Omega-3 fatty acid benefits in developing species-specific fish consumption advice. Environ Health Perspect 117(2):267–275.  https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.11368 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Glamuzina, I (2009) Integralni planovi razvoja školjkarstva. Podrucˇja Malostonskog zaljeva, ušc’a rijeke Krke i akvatorija sjeverozapadnog dijela Zadarske zˇupanije. URL http://www.undp.hr/upload/file/227/113903/.../ 256_07_2_S_pdf Accessed 01.05.12
  24. Government of Pakistan (2005) Overview: Medium Term Development Framework 2005–10Google Scholar
  25. Gutierrez R, Arias HR, Quintana R, Ortega J, Gutierrez M (2008) Heavy metals in water of the San Pedro River in Chihuahua, Mexico and its potential health risk. Int J Environ Res Public Health 5(2):91–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hajeb P, Jinap S (2009) Effects of washing pretreatment on mercury concentration in fish tissue. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 26(10):1354–1361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Javed M, Usmani N (2016) Accumulation of heavy metals and human health risk assessment via the consumption of freshwater fish Mastacembelus armatus inhabiting, thermal power plant effluent loaded canal. SpringerPlus 5:776.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-2471-3
  28. JECFA (1999) Reports of the 53rd meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). JECFA/53/TRS. Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  29. JECFA (2003) Summary and conclusions of the 61st meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). JECFA/61/SC. Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  30. JECFA (2010) Steviol Glycosides [Prepared at the 73rd JECFA (2010) and published in FAO JECFA Monographs 10 (2010)]. In: Combined Compendium of Food Additive Specifications (Online Edition). General Specifications for Enzymes Analytical Methods, Volume 4. (FAO JECFA Monographs 10). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), RomeGoogle Scholar
  31. Kamal T, Tanoli MAK, Mumtaz M, Ali N, Ayub S (2015) Bioconcentration potential studies of heavy metals in Fenneropenaeus penicillatus (Jaira or red tail shrimp) along the Littoral states of Karachi City. J Basic & App Sc 11:611–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Khattak MI, Khattak MI, Mohibullah M (2012) Study of heavy metal pollution in mangrove sediments reference to marine environment along the coastal areas of Pakistan. Pak J Bot 44(1):373–378Google Scholar
  33. Koki IB, Bayero AB, Umar A, Yusuf S (2015) Health risk assessment of heavy metals in water, air, soil and fish 9(11): 204–210Google Scholar
  34. Kuruvilla S (2001) Impact of shrimp fisheries in Trinidad and Tobago. Paper presented at regional workshop held in Cost Rica; 14–14 January. In Tropical shrimp fisheries and their impact on living resources, United Nations FAO Fish Cir. No. 974: 308–329Google Scholar
  35. Leung KMY, Furness RW (1999) Effect of animal size on concentrations of metallothionein and metals in periwinkles Lithorina litorea collected from the fifth of Clyde, Scotland. Mar Pollut Bull 39:126–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lowry OH, Rosenberg NJ, Farr AL, Randall RF (1951) J Biol Chem 193:265–275Google Scholar
  37. Mendal D, Uluozlu OD (2007) Determination of trace metals in sediment and five fish species from lakes in Tokat, Turkey. Food Chem 101:739–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mustapha A, Aris AZ (2012) Multivariate statistical analysis and environmental modeling of heavy metals pollution by industries. Pol J Environ Stud 21(5):1359–1367Google Scholar
  39. Nieto BG, Gismera MJ, Sevilla MT, Procopio JR (2017) Determination of essential elements in beverages, herbal infusions and dietary supplements using a new straightforward sequential approach based on flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Food Chem 219:69–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Plaskett D, Potter IC (1979) Heavy metal concentrations in the muscles tissues of 12 species of teleost (fish) from Cockburn Sound, Western AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  41. Qiu YW, Yu KF, Zhang G, Wang WX (2011) Accumulation and partitioning of seven trace metals in mangroves and sediment cores from three estuarine wetlands of Hainan Island, China. J Hazard Mater 190(1–3):631–638.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.03.091 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Saher NU, Kanwal N (2018) Heavy metal contamination and human health risk indices assessment in shellfish species from Karachi coast, Pakistan. Acad J Food Res 6(1):012–020.  https://doi.org/10.15413/ajfr.2017.0103
  43. Scientific Committe on Food (SCF) (2006) Scientific panel on dietetic products, nutrition and allergies. Tolerable upper intake levels for vitamins and mineralsGoogle Scholar
  44. Sigel A, Sigel H, Sigel RKO (2013) In Interrelations between essential metal ions and human diseases. Metal ions in life science (Vol. 13). SpringerGoogle Scholar
  45. Sinha S, Basant A, Malik A, Singh KP (2009) Iron-induced oxidative stress in a macrophyte: A chemometric approach. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 72(2):585-595Google Scholar
  46. TFC (2002) Turkish food codes.Official gazette. No: 24885Google Scholar
  47. Tomanek L (2014) Proteomics to study adaptations in marine organisms to environmental stress. J Proteome 105:92–106.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2014.04.009
  48. UNEP (1997) Assessment of land-based sources and activities affecting the marine environment in the red Sea and Gulf of Aden. UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies No.166Google Scholar
  49. United States Environmental Protection Agency (1993) Reference dose (RfD): description and use in health risk assessments, Background Document 1A. Available at: http:// www.epa.gov/iris/rfd.htm
  50. United States Environmental Protection Agency (2001)Google Scholar
  51. USEPA (1989) Risk assessment guidance for superfund. Human health evaluation manual part A, interim final, vol. I. Washington (DC)7 United States Environmental Protection Agency; EPA/540/1–89/002Google Scholar
  52. USEPA (1993) Reference Dose (RfD): description and use in health risk assessments. http://www.epa.gov/iris/rfd.htm
  53. USEPA (1996) Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (PDF). EPA/600/P92/003C, Apr 1996. http://www.epa.gov/raf/publications/pdfs/propcra_1996.pdf
  54. USEPA (2000) Risk-based concentration table. Environmental Protection Agency, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  55. USEPA (2002) A review of the reference dose and reference concentration processes. EPA/630/P-02/002F, Dec 2002. http://www.epa.gov/raf/publications/review-referencedose.html
  56. USEPA. 2005. Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. EPA/630/P-03/001F, Mar 2005. http://www.epa.gov/cancerguidelines/
  57. USEPA (2011) Recommended use of BW3/4 as the default method in derivation of the oral reference dose. EPA/100/R11/001. Office of the Science Advisor.Google Scholar
  58. USFDA (1993) United States Food and drug administration, Guidance document for chromium in shellfish. DHHS/PHS/FDA/CFSAN/Office of seafood, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  59. Wardlaw GM, Smith AM (2009) Contemporary nutrition. McGraw-Hill, New York 750ppGoogle Scholar
  60. World Health Organization (WHO) (1993) Research guidelines for evaluating the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines. World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific, Manila.Google Scholar
  61. Zheng N, Wang Q, Zhang X, Zheng D, Zhang Z, Zhang S (2007) Population health risk due to dietary intake of heavy metals in the industrial area of Huludao City, China. Sci Total Environ 387(1–3):96–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre of Excellence in Marine BiologyUniversity of KarachiKarachiPakistan

Personalised recommendations