Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 784–796 | Cite as

Determining the effects of aeration intensity and reactor height to diameter (H/D) ratio on granule stability based on bubble behavior analysis

  • Jia heng Zhou
  • Yun cheng Zhou
  • Hao cheng Yu
  • Yi qun Zhao
  • Kai qiang Ye
  • Jing yuan Fang
  • Hong yu WangEmail author
Research Article


Aerobic granular sludge was considered as a leading wastewater technology in the next century. However, the loss of granule stability limited the application of this promising biotechnology. Increasing aeration intensity and height to diameter (H/D) ratio were conventional strategies to enhance granule stability. In this study, hydraulic effects of aeration intensity and H/D ratio were explored basing on bubble behavior analysis. However, results revealed that due to viscous resistance, increasing aeration intensity and H/D ratio had limited effects on enhancing hydraulic shear stress, not to mention the extra operation and construction cost. A deflector component was further applied to regulate hydraulic shear stress on large granules under low aeration intensity and H/D ratio. Hydraulic shear stress of large granules was constantly around 3.0 times higher than that in the conventional reactor, resulting in higher percentage of granules within optimal size range (81.95 ± 5.13%). A high abundance of denitrifying bacteria was observed in reactors, which led to high TN removal efficiency of 88.6 ± 3.8%.


Aerobic granular sludge Hydraulic shear stress H/D ratio Aeration intensity Bubble behavior 


Funding information

This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China [grant numbers 51708499 and 21776262] and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation [grant numbers 2017M612031].


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Civil Engineering and ArchitectureZhejiang University of TechnologyHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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