Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 188–198 | Cite as

Levels, profiles, and emission characteristics of chlorobenzenes in ash samples from some industrial thermal facilities in northern Vietnam

  • Hue Thi NguyenEmail author
  • Thu Thuy Thi Nguyen
  • Nguyen Hoang Tung
  • Anh Quoc Hoang
  • Long Hai Pham
  • Tu Binh MinhEmail author
Research Article


Chlorobenzenes (CBzs) are unintentionally produced organic contaminants from different thermal industrial processes, which have been scarcely surveyed in Asian developing countries including Vietnam. In this study, residue concentrations, profiles, emission factors, and annual emissions of seven chlorobenzene compounds were investigated in fly ash and bottom ash samples of some industrial facilities including brick making plant, steel and zinc production plants, and industrial and municipal waste incinerators in northern Vietnam. Total concentrations of seven CBzs in the ash samples were generally decreased in the order: industrial waste incinerator > municipal waste incinerator > steel-making plant > brick making plant. Emission pattern of CBzs varied considerably among different industrial plants, with 1,2- and 1,3-dichloro-, 1,2,3,4-tetrachloro-, and hexachlorobenzene as predominant compounds in the industrial waste incinerators and steel-making plants. Emission factors of CBzs estimated for the fly ash and bottom ash samples were in the range of 118–2020 and 5.3–22,600 μg ton−1, respectively. Average annual emissions (AEs) of total seven CBzs estimated for fly ash and bottom ash in the investigated plants were in the range of 154–54,300 and 20,160–161,400 mg year−1, respectively. The AEs of CBzs estimated for fly ash in the steel-making plant were higher than those in the waste incinerators. Meanwhile, CBz emissions for bottom ash were the highest in the steel-making plant, followed by the industrial and municipal waste incinerators. This is among the first studies on the emission characteristics of both low and highly chlorinated benzenes from industrial activities in Vietnam.


Chlorobenzenes Fly ash Bottom ash Waste incineration Steel production Vietnam 


Funding information

Financial support was provided by the National Foundation for Science and Technology Development (NAFOSTED) of Vietnam with the Project “Evaluate emission capacity, assessment of risk and the transformation between pentachlorobenzene and hexachlorobenzene in the environment from incineration of industrial activities” (Code: 104.04-2015.45).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hue Thi Nguyen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Thu Thuy Thi Nguyen
    • 1
    • 3
  • Nguyen Hoang Tung
    • 1
  • Anh Quoc Hoang
    • 4
    • 5
  • Long Hai Pham
    • 1
  • Tu Binh Minh
    • 5
  1. 1.Institute of Environmental Technology and Graduate University of Science and Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and TechnologyHanoiVietnam
  2. 2.University of Science and Technology of HanoiHanoiVietnam
  3. 3.Faculty of Chemistry, TNU University of ScienceThai Nguyen UniversityThai Nguyen CityVietnam
  4. 4.Center of Advanced Technology for the Environment (CATE), Graduate School of AgricultureEhime UniversityMatsuyamaJapan
  5. 5.Faculty of ChemistryVNU University of ScienceHanoiVietnam

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