Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 36, pp 36555–36569 | Cite as

WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ modeling system for air quality evaluation in São Paulo megacity with a 2008 experimental campaign data

  • Taciana Toledo de Almeida AlbuquerqueEmail author
  • Maria de Fátima Andrade
  • Rita Yuri Ynoue
  • Davidson Martins Moreira
  • Willian Lemker Andreão
  • Fábio Soares dos Santos
  • Erick Giovani Sperandio Nascimento
Research Article


Atmospheric pollutants are strongly affected by transport processes and chemical transformations that alter their composition and the level of contamination in a region. In the last decade, several studies have employed numerical modeling to analyze atmospheric pollutants. The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of the WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ modeling system to represent meteorological and air quality conditions over São Paulo, Brazil, where vehicular emissions are the primary contributors to air pollution. Meteorological fields were modeled using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), for a 12-day period during the winter of 2008 (Aug. 10th–Aug. 22nd), using three nested domains with 27-km, 9-km, and 3-km grid resolutions, which covered the most polluted cities in São Paulo state. The 3-km domain was aligned with the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE), which processes the emission inventory for the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ). Data from an aerosol sampling campaign was used to evaluate the modeling. The PM10 and ozone average concentration of the entire period was well represented, with correlation coefficients for PM10, varying from 0.09 in Pinheiros to 0.69 in ICB/USP, while for ozone, the correlation coefficients varied from 0.56 in Pinheiros to 0.67 in IPEN. However, the model underestimated the concentrations of PM2.5 during the experiment, but with ammonium showing small differences between predicted and observed concentrations. As the meteorological model WRF underestimated the rainfall and overestimated the wind speed, the accuracy of the air quality model was expected to be below the desired value. However, in general, the CMAQ model reproduced the behavior of atmospheric aerosol and ozone in the urban area of São Paulo.


Air quality modeling CMAQ SMOKE WRF Measurement campaign Aerosol Ozone 


Funding information

This research was partially funded by Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Brazil.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Taciana Toledo de Almeida Albuquerque
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Maria de Fátima Andrade
    • 3
  • Rita Yuri Ynoue
    • 3
  • Davidson Martins Moreira
    • 2
    • 4
  • Willian Lemker Andreão
    • 1
  • Fábio Soares dos Santos
    • 1
  • Erick Giovani Sperandio Nascimento
    • 4
  1. 1.Federal University of Minas GeraisBelo HorizonteBrazil
  2. 2.Federal University of Espírito SantoVitóriaBrazil
  3. 3.University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  4. 4.SENAI CIMATECSalvadorBrazil

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