Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 36, pp 36412–36424 | Cite as

Evaluation of potassium solubilizing rhizobacteria (KSR): enhancing K-bioavailability and optimizing K-fertilization of maize plants under Indo-Gangetic Plains of India

  • Vijay Singh MeenaEmail author
  • Abbu Zaid
  • Bihari Ram Maurya
  • Sunita Kumari MeenaEmail author
  • Indra Bahadur
  • Madhumonti Saha
  • Ashok Kumar
  • Rajhans Verma
  • Shabir H. WaniEmail author
Research Article


Imbalanced potassium (K) fertilization in agricultural fields has led to considerable negative impacts and remains to be the foremost challenge for maize production in India-Gangetic region. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, particularly potassium solubilizing rhizobacteria (KSR), could serve as inoculants and a promising strategy for enhancement of plant absorption of K hence reducing dependency on chemical fertilizers. Maize seeds were microbiolized for 30 min with KSR suspensions. In the present study, the use of chemical fertilizers along with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain OPVS10 showed pronounced beneficial effect on growth and yield attributes in maize. There was a significant difference among different parameters studied when varying doses of K and KSR strains were applied. Results showed that the combined application of KSR strain OPVS10 with 100% RDK (recommended dose of K) was most effective in modulating growth, physio-biochemical, and yield attributes in maize thus could be regarded as a promising alternative to mineral K-fertilization. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that 100-grain weight and grain yield were the most important properties to improve the sustainable growth of maize. Therefore, these KSR strains have different mechanisms for modulating various activities in maize plants. Results suggested that the synergistic application of KSR strain OPVS10 with 100% RDK can be used for optimized breeding, screening, and nutrient assimilation in maize crop. Hence, this eco-friendly approach may be one of the efficient methods for reducing dependency on chemicals, which pose adverse effects on human health directly and indirectly.


Maize KSR Growth promotion Optimized maize yield 



Authors thank the Head of the Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University (BHU), Varanasi, for providing the necessary facilities to conduct this experiment. VSM is thankful to UGC, Government of India (GOI), for Ph.D. research fellowship during the present investigation.

Supplementary material

11356_2018_3571_MOESM1_ESM.docx (89 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 89 kb)


  1. Ahmad M, Zahir ZA, Asghar HN, Arshad M (2012) The combined application of rhizobial strains and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria improves growth and productivity of mung bean (Vigna radiate L.) under salt-stressed conditions. Ann Microbiol 62:1321–1330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bahadur I, Maurya BR, Meena VS, Saha M, Kumar A, Aeron A (2017) Mineral release dynamics of tricalcium phosphate and waste muscovite by mineral-solubilizing rhizobacteria isolated from Indo-Gangetic Plain of India. Geomicrobiol J.
  3. Basak BB, Biswas DR (2009) Influence of potassium solubilizing microorganism (Bacillus mucilaginosus) and waste mica on potassium uptake dynamics by Sudan grass (Sorghum vulgare Pers.) grown under two Alfisols. Plant Soil 317:235–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bulgarelli D, Schlaeppi K, Spaepen S, Ver Loren van Themaat E, Schulze-Lefert P (2013) Structure and functions of the bacterial microbiota of plants. Annul Rev Plant Biol, 807–838, 64Google Scholar
  5. Duncan DB (1955) Multiple range and multiple F-tests. Biometrics 11:1–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Egamberdiyeva D, Hoflich C (2003) Influence of growth promoting bacteria on the growth of wheat in different soils and temperatures. Soil Biol Biochem 35:973–978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gholami A, Shahsavani S, Nezarat S (2009) The effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on germination, seedling growth and yield of maize. World Acad Sci Eng Technol 49:19–24Google Scholar
  8. Hasan R (2002) Potassium status of soils in India. Better Crops 16:3–5Google Scholar
  9. Hu X, Chen J, Guo J (2006) Two phosphate- and potassium-solubilizing bacteria isolated from Tianmu Mountain, Zhejiang, China. World J MicrobiolBiotechnol 22:983–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hu W, Coomer TD, Loka DA, Oosterhuis DM, Zhou Z (2017) Potassium deficiency affects the carbon-nitrogen balance in cotton leaves. Plant Physiol Biochem 115:408–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ilangumaran G, Smith DL (2017) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in amelioration of salinity stress: a systems biology perspective. Front Plant Sci 8:1768. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Iqbal MA, Khalid M, Shahzad SM, Ahmad M, Soleman N, Akhtar N (2012) Integrated use of Rhizobium leguminosarum, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and enriched compost for improving growth, nodulation and yield of lentil (Lens culinarisMedik.). Chilean J Agric Res 72:104–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Khalid A, Abbasi MK, Hussain T (2006) Effects of integrated use of organic and inorganic nutrient sources with effective microorganisms (EM) on seed cotton yield in Pakistan. Bioresour Technol 97:967–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kohler U, Luniak M (2005) Data inspection using biplots. Stata J 5:208–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kumar A, Maurya BR, Raghuwanshi R (2014) Isolation and characterization of PGPR and their effect on growth, yield and nutrient content in wheat (Triticumaestivum L.). Biocatal Agric Biotechnol 3:121–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kumar A, Bahadur I, Maurya BR, Raghuwanshi R, Meena VS, Singh DK, Dixit J (2015) Does a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria enhance agricultural sustainability? J Pure Appl Microbiol 9:715–724Google Scholar
  17. Kumar A, Maurya BR, Raghuwanshi R, Meena VS, Islam MT (2017) Co-inoculation with Enterobacter and Rhizobacteria on yield and nutrient uptake by wheat (Triticumaestivum L.) in the alluvial soil under Indo-Gangetic Plain of India. J Plant Growth Regul 36:608–617. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lin Q, Rao Z, Sun Y, Yao J, Xing L (2002) Identification and practical application of silicate-dissolving bacteria. Agric Sci China 1:81–85Google Scholar
  19. Liu D, Lian B, Dong H (2012) Isolation of Paenibacillus spp. and assessment of its potential for enhancing mineral weathering. Geomicrobiol J 29:413–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Maurya BR, Meena VS, Meena OP (2014) Influence of Inceptisol and Alfisol's potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB) isolates on release of K from waste mica. Vegetos 27:181–187Google Scholar
  21. Meena OP, Maurya BR, Meena VS (2013) Influence of K-solubilizing bacteria on release of potassium from waste mica. Agron Sustain Dev 1:53–56Google Scholar
  22. Meena VS, Maurya BR, Bahadur I (2014a) Potassium solubilization by bacterial strain in waste mica. Bangladesh J Bot 43:235–237Google Scholar
  23. Meena VS, Maurya BR, Verma JP (2014b) Does a rhizospheric microorganism enhance K+ availability in agricultural soils? Microbiol Res 169:337–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Meena VS, Maurya BR, Verma JP, Aeron A, Kumar A, Kim K, Bajpai VK (2015) Potassium solubilizing rhizobacteria (KSR): isolation, identification, and K-release dynamics from waste mica. Ecol Eng 81:340–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Meena VS, Maurya BR, Verma JP, Meena RS (2016) Potassium solubilizing microorganisms for sustainable agriculture. Springer, India. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mengel K, Kirkby EA (2001) Principles of plant nutrition, 5th edn. Kluwer Acad. Publishers pp, Dordrecht, p 849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Miransari M, Smith DL (2014) Plant hormones and seed germination. Environ Exp Bot 99:110–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mohammadi K, Sohrabi Y (2012) Bacterial biofertilizers for sustainable crop production: a review. ARPN J Agric Biol Sci 7:307–316Google Scholar
  29. Nath D, Maurya BR, Meena VS (2017) Documentation of five potassium- and phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria for their K and P-solubilization ability from various minerals. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol 10:174–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rais A, Jabeen Z, Shair F, Hafeez FY, Hassan MN (2017) Bacillus spp., a bio-control agent enhances the activity of antioxidant defense enzymes in rice against Pyriculariaoryzae. PLoS One 12(11):e0187412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rengel Z, Damon PM (2008) Crops and genotypes differ in efficiency of potassium uptake and use. Special Issue: Special Topics in Potassium and Magnesium Research. Physiol Plant 133:624–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rogiers SY, Coetzee ZA, Walker RR, Deloire A, Tyerman SD (2017) Potassium in the grape (Vitisvinifera L.) berry: transport and function. Front Plant Sci 8:1629. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Saeed IN, Abbasi K, Kazim M (2001) Response of maize (Zea mays) to nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization under agro-climatic condition of Rawalokot Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Pak J Biol Sci 4:53–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Saha M, Maurya BR, Bahadur I, Kumar A, Meena VS (2016a) Can potassium-solubilising bacteria mitigate the potassium problems in India? In: Meena VS, Maurya BR, Verma JP, Meena RS (eds) Potassium solubilizing microorganisms for sustainable agriculture. Springer, India, pp 127–136. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Saha M, Maurya BR, Meena VS, Bahadur I, Kumar A (2016b) Identification and characterization of potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB) from Indo-Gangetic Plains of India. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol 7:202–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sarkar D, Meena VS, Haldar A, Rakshit R (2017) Site-specific nutrient management (SSNM): a unique approach towards maintaining soil health. In the adaptive soil management: from theory to practices, pp 69–88.
  37. Shabala S, Pottosin I (2014) Regulation of potassium transport in plants under hostile conditions: implications for abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. Physiol Plant 151:257–279. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Singh RK, Mishra RPN, Jaiswal HK, Kumar V, Pandey SP, Rao SB, Annapurna K (2006) Isolation and identification of natural endophytic rhizobia from rice (Oryza sativa L.) through rDNA PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis. Curr Microbiol 52:345–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Singh G, Biswas DR, Marwah TS (2010) Mobilization of potassium from waste mica by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and its assimilation by maize (Zea mays) and wheat (TriticumaestivumL). J Plant Nutr 33:1236–1251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sugumaran P, Janarthanam B (2007) Solubilization of potassium containing minerals by bacteria and their effect on plant growth. World J Agric Sci 3:350–355Google Scholar
  41. Suke SN, Deotale RD, Priyanka H, Deogirkar M, Sorte SN (2011) Effect of nutrients and biofertilizers of chemical and biochemical parameters of maize (Zea mays L.). J Soils Crops 21:107–112Google Scholar
  42. Tennant D (1975) A test of a modified line intersect method of estimating root length. J Ecol 63:995–1001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Troufflard S, Mullen W, Larson TR, Graham IA, Crozier A, Amtmann A, Armengaud P (2010) Potassium deficiency induced the biosynthesis of oxylipins and glucosinolates in Arabiodopsis thaliana. BMC Plant Biol 10:172. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Verma R, Maurya BR, Meena VS, Dotaniya ML, Deewan P (2017a) Microbial dynamics as influenced by bio-organics and mineral fertilizer in alluvium soil of Varanasi, India. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 6:1516–1524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Verma R, Maurya BR, Meena VS, Dotaniya ML, Deewan P, Jajoria M (2017b) Enhancing production potential of cabbage and improves soil fertility status of Indo-Gangetic Plain through application of bio-organics and mineral fertilizer. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 6:301–309Google Scholar
  46. Vessey KJ (2003) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as biofertilizers. Plant Soil 25:557–586Google Scholar
  47. White PJ, Karley AJ (2010) Potassium. In: Hell R, Mendel RR (eds) Cell biology of metals and nutrients, plant cell monographs, vol 17. Springer, Berlin, pp 199–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Yadav RS, Singh V, Pal S, Meena SK, Meena VS, Sarma BK, Singh HB, Rakshit A (2018) Seed bio-priming of baby corn emerged as a viable strategy for reducing mineral fertilizer use and increasing productivity. Sci Hortic 241:93–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zahoor R, Zhao W, Abid M, Dong H, Zhou Z (2017) Potassium application regulates nitrogen metabolism and osmotic adjustment in cotton (Gossypiumhirsutum L.) functional leaf under drought stress. J Plant Physiol 215:30–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zarjani JK, Aliasgharzad N, Oustan S, Emadi M, Ahmadi A (2013) Isolation and characterization of potassium-solubilizing bacteria in some Iranian soils. Arch Agron Soil Sci 59:1713–1723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zhang C, Kong F (2014) Isolation and identification of potassium-solubilizing bacteria from tobacco rhizospheric soil and their effect on tobacco plants. Appl Soil Ecol 82:18–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Zhang A, Zhao G, Gao T, Wang W, Li J, Zhang S (2013) Solubilization of insoluble potassium and phosphate by Paenibacilluskribensis CX-7: a soil microorganism with biological control potential. Afr J Microbiol Res 7:41–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Institute of Agricultural SciencesBanaras Hindu University (BHU)VaranasiIndia
  2. 2.ICAR-Vivekananda Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhan Sansthan (VPKAS)AlmoraIndia
  3. 3.Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Section, Department of BotanyAligarh Muslim UniversityAligarhIndia
  4. 4.Division of Soil Science and Agricultural ChemistryICAR-Indian Agriculture Research Institute (IARI)New DelhiIndia
  5. 5.Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Faculty of AgricultureBidhan Chandra KrishiViswavidyalaya (BCKV)MohanpurIndia
  6. 6.Department of Botany, MMVBanaras Hindu University (BHU)VaranasiIndia
  7. 7.Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of AgricultureSKNAUJaipurIndia
  8. 8.Mountain Research Centre for Field CropsSher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of KashmirSrinagarIndia

Personalised recommendations