Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 36, pp 36462–36473 | Cite as

Attenuation of utero-toxicity, metabolic dysfunction and inflammation by soy protein concentrate in rats exposed to fluoridated water: consequence of hyperlipidemia in parallel with hypohomocysteinemia

  • Lipirani Jana
  • Pikash Pratim Maity
  • Hasina Perveen
  • Moumita Dash
  • Suryashis Jana
  • Arindam Dey
  • Subrata Kumar De
  • Sandip ChattopadhyayEmail author
Research Article


Lipid peroxidation and ROS generation are the pathogenesis of chronic fluoride toxicity, and its detrimental effects on human reproduction are noted drastically. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the defensive effects of soy protein concentrate (SPC) against sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced uterine dysfunction at biochemical and histological level. Rats were randomly distributed into four groups as control, NaF-treated (200 ppm), and SPC co-administered groups (20 mg and 40 mg/ 100 g body weight) for 16 days. SPC reversed the toxic effects of NaF. SPC significantly ameliorated the NaF-induced alterations of the antioxidant system in the uterus by decreasing lipid peroxidation products and by increasing antioxidant activities. SPC significantly counteracted the adverse effects of NaF on serum level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and inflammatory markers Interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB). Our results also explored that lipid profile was meaningfully altered due to NaF and also focused a diminution of circulating homocysteine (Hcy) and altered lipid profiles along with a diminished quantity of serum B12 and B9. However, both the doses of SPC reverted back serum levels of B12, B9, and Hcy status in similar fashion along with its corrective action on lipid profile. NaF-treated group exhibited a marked degree of reduction in the weights of ovary and uterus with an alteration of normal tissue histology and significant diminution in serum estradiol (ES) levels without fluctuating uterine estradiol receptor-α (ER-α). However, SPC restored the normal tissue histoarchitecture and also increased the functional efficiency and expression of the ER-α receptor by overturning the ES levels in NaF-treated rats. Moreover, both the doses of SPC were effective against NaF-induced alterations, although 40 mg SPC/100 g body weight had better efficacy in ameliorating the NaF-induced adverse effects on the uterus and ovary.


Soy protein concentrate Antioxidant system Estradiol Homocysteine and lipid profile Vitamins Uterus and ovary 





Conjugated dienes




Estradiol receptor-α


Glutathione peroxidase




High density lipoprotein




Lactate dehydrogenase


Low density lipoprotein




Sodium fluoride


Nuclear factor kappa B


Non-protein soluble thiol


Reactive oxygen species


Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase


Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase


Superoxide dismutase


Soy protein concentrate


Tumor necrosis factor alpha


Funding information

This research was partially supported by a grant from UGC NET-JRF (Award Letter No. F.15-9(JULY 2016)/2016(NET) and UGC Ref. No.: 1111/(NET-JULY 2016).

Compliance with ethical standards

This study was performed following the guidelines of the Institutional Ethical Committee.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lipirani Jana
    • 1
  • Pikash Pratim Maity
    • 1
  • Hasina Perveen
    • 1
  • Moumita Dash
    • 1
  • Suryashis Jana
    • 1
  • Arindam Dey
    • 1
  • Subrata Kumar De
    • 2
  • Sandip Chattopadhyay
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science and Management, and Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics division (UGC Innovative Department)Vidyasagar UniversityMidnaporeIndia
  2. 2.Department of ZoologyVidyasagar UniversityMidnaporeIndia

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