Advertisement

A more fine-grained measure towards animal welfare: a study with regards to gender differences in Spanish students

  • Beatriz Mazas
  • Rosario Fernández-Manzanal
Research Article
  • 20 Downloads

Abstract

The environmental issue is nowadays taking more importance in the environmental awareness all around the world, and in this field, animal consideration is more and more spread. A highlighted part in globalisation is the animal welfare awareness. This article presents a study comparing attitudes towards animals among secondary and university students in reference to gender. It was carried out on 1394 Spanish participants from 11 to 26 years. The instrument used in the study is the reviewed version of the Animal Welfare Attitude Scale which was renamed as “Animal Welfare Attitude-Revised Scale” (AWA-R Scale), with a Cronbach α reliability value of 0.85. It is subdivided into four components namely C1: animal abuse for pleasure or due to ignorance; C2: leisure with animals; C3: farm animals; and C4: animal abandonment. These components have been deeply detailed by a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), which highly contributes to define the position of participants for the different dimensions of animal welfare. It is concluded that significant differences exist between males’ and females’ attitudes in all components of the AWA-R Scale. It is also suggested that two social characteristics—people’s attitudes towards animals and towards environmental protection—are, at the very least, coexistent and may indeed be interdependent. These differences between gender in matters of socialisation could thus be reflected in environmental attitudes, and also in others related to them, i.e. animal welfare attitudes.

Keywords

Animal welfare Animal protection Attitudes Confirmatory factor analysis Environmental education Gender differences 

References

  1. Ajzen I (2005) Attitudes, personality, and behavior (2nd Ed). Open University Press, McGraw-Hill, Milton-KeynesGoogle Scholar
  2. Akaike H (1987) Factor analysis and AIC. Psychometrika 52:317–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Apostol L, Rebega OL, Miclea M (2013) Psychological and socio-demographic predictors of attitudes toward animals. Soc Behav Sci 78:521–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boza A, Conde S (2015) Training, attitude, use and impact of web 2.0 in higher education: scale validation. Cult Educ 27(2):372–406.  https://doi.org/10.1080/11356405.2015.1034531 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Broom DM (2017) Animal welfare in the European Union. Directorate General for Internal Policies, Policy Department C: Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs. Petitions. European Union. 74 pp. Available at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2017/583114/IPOL_STU(2017)583114_EN.pdf
  6. Browne MW, Cudeck R (1993) Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In: Bollen KA, Long JS (eds) Testing structural equation models. Sage, Newbury Park, pp 136–162Google Scholar
  7. Cohen J (1988) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences, 2nd edn. Lawrence Erlbaum, HillsdaleGoogle Scholar
  8. De Vellis R (1991) Scale development: theory and applications. Sage, Newbury ParkGoogle Scholar
  9. Dunlap RE, Van Liere KD, Mertig AG, Jones RE (2000) New trends in measuring environmental attitudes: measuring endorsement of the new ecological paradigm: a revised NEP scale. J Soc Issues 5(3):425–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fernández-Manzanal R, Rodríguez-Barreiro LM, Carrasquer J (2007) Evaluation of environmental attitudes: analysis and results of a scale applied to university students. Sci Educ 91:988–1009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Furnham A, Pinder A (1990) Young people’s attitudes to experimentation of animals. Psychologist 10:444–446Google Scholar
  12. Furnham A, McManus C, Scott D (2003) Personality, empathy and attitudes to animal welfare. Anthrozoös 16(2):135–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gregory NG (1998) Animal welfare and meat science. Cab International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  14. Gruenewald D (2003) The best of both worlds: a critical pedagogy of place. Educ Res 32(4):3–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Heleski CR, Mertig AG, Zanella AJ (2004) Assessing attitudes toward farm animal welfare: a National Survey of animal science faculty members. J Anim Sci 82:2806–2814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Heleski CR, Mertig AG, Zanella AJ (2006) Stakeholder attitudes toward farm animal welfare. Anthrozoös 19(4):290–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Herzog HA, Betchart NS, Pittman R (1991) Gender, sex role identity and attitudes toward animals. Anthrozoös 4(3):184–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Holfve-Sabel MA (2011) Gender attitudes in school have changed mainly in peer relational factors over a period of 35 years. Gend Educ 23(1):73–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kahn R, Humes B (2009) Marching out from the ultima Thule: critical counterstories of emancipatory educators working at the intersection on human rights, animal rights, and planetary sustainability. Can J Environ Educ 14:179–195Google Scholar
  20. Karazsia BT, van Dulmen MH, Wildman BG (2008) Confirmatory factor analysis of Arnold et al.’s Parenting Scale across race, age, and sex. J Child Fam Stud 17:500–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kruse CR (1999) Gender, views of nature and support for animal rights. Soc Anim 7:179–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ling RZ, Zulkifli I, Lampang PN, Nhiem DV, Wang Y, Phillips CJC (2016) Attitudes of students from southeast and east Asian countries to slaughter and transport of livestock. Anim Welf 25(3):377–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. María GA (2006) Public perception of farm animal welfare in Spain. Livest Sci 103:250–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. María GA, Mazas B, Zarza FJ, Miranda de la Lama GC (2017) Animal welfare, National Identity and social change: attitudes and opinions of Spanish citizens towards bullfighting. J Agric Environ Ethics 30(6):809–826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Marsh HW, Hocevar D (1985) Application of confirmatory factor analysis to the study of self-concept: first- and higher order factor models and their invariance across groups. Psychol Bull 97:362–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mazas B, Fernández-Manzanal R, Zarza FJ, María GA (2013) Development and validation of a scale to assess students’ attitude towards animal welfare. Int J Sci Educ 35(11):1775–1799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nadelson LS, Southerland S (2012) A more fine-grained measure of Students' acceptance of evolution: development of the inventory of student evolution acceptance-I-SEA. Int J Sci Educ 34(11):1637–1666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Norgaard K, York R (2005) Gender equality and state environmentalism. Gend Soc 19:506–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nunnally JC, Bernstein IH (1995) Teoría Psicométrica [PsychometricTheory]. McGraw-Hill, MadridGoogle Scholar
  30. Oakley J, Watson GPL, Russell CL, Cutter-Mackenzie AN, Fawcett L, Kuhl G, Russell J, van der Waal M, Warkentin T (2010) Animal encounters in environmental education research: responding to the 'Question of the animal. Can J Environ Educ 15:86–102Google Scholar
  31. Ostovic M, Mikus T, Pavicic Z, Matkovic K, Mesic Z (2017) Influence of socio-demographic and experiential factors on the attitudes of Croatian veterinary students towards farm animal welfare. Veterinarni Medicina 62(8):417–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Peek CW, Bell NJ, Dunham CC (1996) Gender, gender ideology, and animal rights advocacy. Gend Soc 10:464–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Phillips CJC, Izmirli S, Aldavood SJ, Alonso M, Choe BI, Hanlon A, Handziska A, Illman G, Keeling L, Kennedy M, Lee GH, Lund V, Mejdell C, Pelagic VR, Rehn T (2011) An international comparison of female and male students’ attitudes to the use of animals. Animals 1:7–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Phillips CJC, Izmirli S, Aldavood SJ, Alonso M, Choe BI, Hanlon A, Handziska A, Illmann G, Keeling L, Kennedy M, Lee GH, Lund V, Mejdell C, Pelagic VR, Rehn T (2012) Students’attitudes to animal welfare and rights in Europe and Asia. Anim Welf 21(1):87–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pifer L, Shimizu K, Pifer R (1994) Public attitudes toward animal research: some international comparisons. Soc Anim 2:95–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Powell RB, Stern MJ, Krohn BD, Ardoin N (2011) Development and validation of scales to measure environmental responsibility, character development, and attitudes toward school. Environ Educ Res 17(1):91–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ramos-Díaz E, Rodríguez-Fernández A, Fernández-Zabala A, Revuelta L, Zuazagoitia A (2016) Apoyo social percibido, autoconcepto e implicación escolar de estudiantes adolescentes. Revista de Psicodidáctica 21(2):339–356.  https://doi.org/10.1387/RevPsicodidact.14848 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rodríguez MJ, Martínez F, Olmos S (2013) Evaluación de competencias informacionales en educación secundaria: un modelo causal. Cult Educ 25(3):361–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Serpell JA (2004) Factors influencing human attitudes towards animals and their welfare. Anim Welf 13:145–151Google Scholar
  40. Sinclair M, Phillips CJC (2017) The cross-cultural importance of animal protection and other world social issues. J Agric Environ Ethics 30:439–455.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10806-017-9676-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Steel BS (1996) Thinking globally and acting locally? Environmental attitudes, behavior and activism. J Environ Manag 47(1):27–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. The Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC). (1979). Five freedoms. Available online: https://www.gov.uk/government/groups/farm-animal-welfare-committee-fawc#assessment-of-farm-animal-welfare%2D%2D-five-freedoms-and-a-life-worth-living (Retrieved 16 Feb 2018)
  43. Vidovic VV, Stetic VV, Bratko D (1999) Pet ownership, type of pet and socio-emotional development of school children. Anthrozoös 12:211–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Villardón-Gallego L, Yániz C, Achurra C, Iraurgi I, Aguilar MC (2013) Learning competence in university: development and structural validation of a scale to measure. Revista de Psicodidáctica 18(2):357–374.  https://doi.org/10.1387/RevPsicodidact.6470 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Webster AJ (2001) Farm animal welfare: the five freedoms and the free market. Vet J 161(3):229–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Weiber R, Mühlhaus D (2009) Strukturgleichungsmodellierung- Eine anwendungsorientierte Einführung in die Kausalanalyse mit Hilfe von AMOS, Smart PLS und SPSS. [Structure, equation modelling – An application-oriented introduction to the causal analysis using AMOS, Smart PLS and SPSS]. Springer Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  47. Wells DL, Hepper PG (1997) Pet ownership and adults’ views on the use of animals. Soc Anim 5:45–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zelezny LC, Schultz PW (2000) Promoting environmentalism. J Soc Issues 56(3):365­578Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universidad de ZaragozaZaragozaSpain
  2. 2.Departamento de Didáctica de las Ciencias ExperimentalesUniversity of ZaragozaZaragozaSpain

Personalised recommendations