The soil bacterial community in cropland is vulnerable to Cd contamination in winter rather than in summer
- 488 Downloads
Potentially toxic metal contamination exerts a significant impact on soil microbes, thus deteriorating soil quality. The seasonality also has effects in shaping soil microbial community. The soil microbial community is a crucial factor representing soil health. However, whether the influence of potentially toxic metals on the microbial community differs in different seasons are still unknown. In this study, we established nine mesocosms of three cadmium treatments to investigate the impact of Cd amendments on the bacterial community of croplands in winter and summer. High bacterial diversity was revealed from the soil samples with 31 phyla. In winter, the abundance of dominant phylum Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes, and Verrucomicrobia increased, but Firmicutes decreased in Cd-contaminated soil in winter. Meanwhile, the abundance of Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Chloroflexi showed Cd dose-dependent pattern in winter. In summer, the phylum Gemmatimonadetes and Verrucomicrobia decreased along with Cd dosing, while the dose-effect of Cd was found on the abundance of Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi. At the genus level, 55 genera of bacteria were significantly affected by Cd stress in winter, 24 genera decreased, 11 genera increased along with Cd gradients, and 20 genera changed depending on Cd dosage. In particular, genera Lactococcus, Psychrobacter, Brochothrix, Enhydrobacter, and Carnobacterium disappeared in Cd treatments, suggesting high sensitivity to Cd stress in winter. In summer, one genus decreased, seven genera increased with Cd dosing, and three genera were dose-dependent. The contrasting effects of Cd on soil bacterial community could be due to different edaphic factors in winter (moisture, available phosphorus, and total Cd) and summer (available Cd). Collectively, the winter-induced multiple stressors increase the impact of Cd on bacterial community in cropland. In further studies, the seasonal factor should be taken into consideration during the sampling stage.
KeywordsBacterial diversity Contaminated soils Season Mesocosm Illumina sequencing
This work was supported by the Ministry of Agriculture of the People’s Republic of China (No.200903015), Environmental protection station of the Ministry of Agriculture in Shaanxi province, and the project of education department in Shaanxi Province(No.18JK0354). We would like to thank professor Xueyun Yang and associate professor Benhua Sun for laboratory assistance.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- Bååth E, Díazraviña M, Frostegård S, Campbell CD (1998) Effect of metal-rich sludge amendments on the soil microbial community. Appl Environ Microbiology 64:238–245Google Scholar
- Bao SD (2000) Soil and agricultural chemistry analysis. Agriculture Publication, Beijing, pp 355–356Google Scholar
- Bevivino A, Paganin P, Bacci G, Florio A, Pellicer MS, Papaleo MC, Mengoni A, Ledda L, Fani R, Benedetti A, Dalmastri C (2014) Soil bacterial community response to differences in agricultural management along with seasonal changes in a Mediterranean region. PLoS One 9:e105515. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105515 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bourceret A, Cébron A, Tisserant E, Poupin P, Bauda P, Beguiristain T, Leyval C (2016) The bacterial and fungal diversity of an aged PAH- and heavy metal-contaminated soil is affected by plant cover and edaphic parameters. Microb Ecol 71:711–724. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-015-0682-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kaplan H, Ratering S, Hanauer T, Felix-Henningsen P, Schnell S (2014) Impact of trace metal contamination and in situ remediation on microbial diversity and respiratory activity of heavily polluted Kastanozems. Biol Fertil Soils 50:735–744. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-013-0890-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kou S, Vincent G, Gonzalez E, Pitre FE, Labrecque M, Brereton NJB (2018) The response of a 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragment amplified community to lead, zinc, and copper pollution in a Shanghai field trial. Front Microbiol 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.00366
- Schloss PD, Westcott SL, Ryabin T, Hall JR, Hartmann M, Hollister EB, Lesniewski RA, Oakley BB, Parks DH, Robinson CJ, Sahl JW, Stres B, Thallinger GG, Van Horn DJ, Weber CF (2009) Introducing mothur: open-source, platform-independent, community-supported software for describing and comparing microbial communities. Appl Environ Microbiol 75:7537–7541. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01541-09 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Xie Y, Fan J, Zhu W, Amombo E, Lou Y, Chen L, Fu J (2016) Effect of heavy metals pollution on soil microbial diversity and bermudagrass genetic variation. Front Plant Sci 7(245). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.00755
- Zhang C, Nie S, Liang J, Zeng G, Wu H, Hua S, Liu J, Yuan Y, Xiao H, Deng L, Xiang H (2016a) Effects of heavy metals and soil physicochemical properties on wetland soil microbial biomass and bacterial community structure. Sci Total Environ 557-558:785–790. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.01.170 CrossRefGoogle Scholar