Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 36, pp 36355–36367 | Cite as

The potential reproductive toxicity of tannery effluent to the estrous cycle and ovarian follicular dynamics of female Swiss mice

  • Raíssa de Oliveira Ferreira
  • Abraão Tiago Batista Guimarães
  • Thiago Lopes Rocha
  • Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues
  • Bruna de Oliveira Mendes
  • Carlos Mesak
  • Guilherme MalafaiaEmail author
Research Article


Although the toxic effects of tannery effluent (TE) on tanning-industry workers have been reported in many studies, its effects on females’ reproductive system are unknown. We aimed at evaluating the effects of direct contact with TE on the “emotional” status, estrous cycle (during 15 consecutive exposure days), and ovarian follicular dynamics of female Swiss mice at the end of the experiment to broaden the knowledge about the toxicity of this pollutant. The herein adopted exposure protocol simulated tanning-industry workers’ exposure to TE. The test animals were subjected to 45 exposure days, for 1 h a day, 5 days a week (from Monday to Friday). Based on the collected data, female mice exposed to TE recorded high anxiety index in the elevated plus maze test, although we did not observe changes in their estrous cycle. The smaller total and specific number of ovarian follicles (types 1 to 6) and the higher frequency of degenerating follicles (atresic) in female mice exposed to TE marked the folliculogenesis reduction in them. Therefore, our study was the first to provide evidences that the exposure to TE can cause reproduction issues in female mice, as well as the first experimental insight about the impact of unhealthy work activities in tanning industries on women’s reproductive system.


Reproductive toxicology Tannery Leather Reproduction Ovaries 



The authors are grateful to the Brazilian National Council for Research (CNPq) (Brazilian research agency) (Proc. No 467801/2014-2) and to Instituto Federal Goiano for the financial support (Proc. No 23219000096/2018-93). Moreover, the authors are grateful to Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES, Brazil) and Fundação de Amaparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Goiás (FAPEG, Brazil) for granting the scholarship to the student who developed the current study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raíssa de Oliveira Ferreira
    • 1
  • Abraão Tiago Batista Guimarães
    • 2
  • Thiago Lopes Rocha
    • 3
  • Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues
    • 1
  • Bruna de Oliveira Mendes
    • 1
  • Carlos Mesak
    • 1
  • Guilherme Malafaia
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Biological Research Laboratory, Post-graduation Program in Conservation of Cerrado Natural ResourcesGoiano Federal Institute—Urutaí CampusUrutaíBrazil
  2. 2.Post-graduation Program in Biotechnology and BiodiversityFederal University of GoiásGoiâniaBrazil
  3. 3.Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology and Ecotoxicology, Institute of Tropical Pathology and Public HealthFederal University of GoiásGoiâniaBrazil
  4. 4.Laboratório de Pesquisas BiológicasInstituto Federal Goiano—Campus UrutaíUrutaíBrazil

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