Effect of PM2.5 environmental pollution on rat lung
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Particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) is a continuing challenge to pulmonary health. Here, we investigated the mechanisms involved in PM2.5 exposure-induced acute lung injury in rats. We analyzed biochemical and morphological changes following a 2-week “real-world” exposure. And then we found that PM2.5 exposure increased the concentrations of total protein, malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, and soluble elastin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, levels of cytokines in blood, and expression of MMP-9 in airways. Further, alveolar macrophage and neutrophil counts increased following PM2.5 exposure, and edema and lung lesions were observed. Our results suggest that PM2.5 exposure can induce oxidative stress and acute inflammatory responses, which can damage the micro-environment and decrease the repair ability of the lung, resulting in tissue damage.
KeywordsPM2.5 Lung Injury Inflammation Oxidative stress Extracellular matrix
particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm
bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) fluid
hematoxylin and eosin
reactive oxygen species
ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid
phosphate buffer sulfate
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
DNA-binding dye propidium iodide
Evans blue dye
acute lung injury
analysis of variance
cholinergic neurotrophic factor
monocyte chemotactic protein 1
receptor for advanced glycation endproducts
tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1
transmission electron microscopy
This study was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (30872083) and Shenyang Nonprofit Science and Technology Project.
Compliance with ethical standards
All studies were performed according to protocols reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of Animal Care and Experimentation of the National Institute for Environmental Studies, China.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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