Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 36, pp 36124–36135 | Cite as

Changes in multiple facets of macroinvertebrate alpha diversity are linked to afforestation in a subtropical riverine natural reserve

  • Jun Wang
  • Xiaoming Jiang
  • Zhengfei Li
  • Xingliang Meng
  • Jani Heino
  • Zhicai Xie
  • Xiaoming Wang
  • Jiang Yu
Research Article
  • 55 Downloads

Abstract

Land use change is one of the major factors impacting freshwater biodiversity. Afforestation could convert new lands from agriculture or urban land uses to reduce erosion and lead to landscape alterations and biodiversity changes. Here, we examined the changes in the three facets of macroinvertebrate alpha diversity (i.e., taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversity) and further explored possible mechanisms driving their variations before (2007) and after (2016) afforestation along the undammed Chishui River, the core of the National Nature Reserve of Rare and Endemic Fishes in the Upper Yangtze River. We found that taxonomic diversity measures (e.g., species richness, Shannon-Wiener index and Simpson index) increased but all measures of functional diversity (e.g., FRic, FEve, FDiv, and RaoQ) and phylogenetic diversity (e.g., indices of taxonomic distinctness) exhibited stability after the afforestation practice. We also found that only significant taxonomic diversity variation was detected and it showed a relationship to alterations of land use rather than local environmental condition changes across the 10-year afforestation practice. Moreover, hydrology and nutrients levels showed changes after afforestation, but these changes had no effect on the biodiversity changes based on multiple linear regression models. In each survey, the three facets of alpha diversity were significantly explained by natural physical factors and showed inconsistent responses to these underlying environmental variables. In addition, the biodiversity-environment relationships remained stable before and after afforestation, indicating that the inherent mechanisms that drive macroinvertebrate community variation have not changed. Our findings highlight that different alpha diversity measures of lotic macroinvertebrates provide different information about biodiversity and respond differently to various environmental variables. Thus, it is necessary to integrate them into one framework when applying routine monitoring, assessment, and conservation procedures based on lotic macroinvertebrates.

Keywords

Chishui River Functional diversity Taxonomic distinctness Land use change Yangtze River 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are greatly indebted to Drs. Zhenli Huang, Tao Tang, Yajing Lu, Zhenhao Chu, Shuhan Guo, Zhuo Wang, and Jiaying Ren for their help in the field sampling, and Chunbo Huang’s suggestion on land use information processing.

Funding information

This work was supported by the China Three Gorges Projects Development Co., Ltd. Research Project (JGJ/0272015), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41571495, 31400469, 31770460), the National Science and Technology Basic Research Program (No. 2015FY110400-4) and Program for Biodiversity Protection (2017HB2096001006).

Supplementary material

11356_2018_3491_MOESM1_ESM.docx (69 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 69 kb)
11356_2018_3491_MOESM2_ESM.docx (20 kb)
ESM 2 (DOCX 19 kb)
11356_2018_3491_MOESM3_ESM.docx (20 kb)
ESM 3 (DOCX 19 kb)

References

  1. Ahearn DS, Sheibley RW, Dahlgren RA (2005) Effects of river regulation on water quality in the lower Mokelumne River, California. River Res Appl 21(6):651–670Google Scholar
  2. Allan JD, Castillo M (2007) Stream ecology: structure and function of running waters. Springer, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnan X, Cerdá X, Retana J (2017) Relationships among taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic ant diversity across the biogeographic regions of Europe. Ecography 40:448–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barbour MT, Gerritsen J, Snyder BD, Stribling JB (1999) Rapid bioassessment protocols for use in streams and wadeable rivers: Periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. 2nd Edition, Washington DC: US Environmental Protection Agency. Office of WaterGoogle Scholar
  5. Bonada N, Rieradevall M, Prat N, Resh V (2006) Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages and macrohabitat connectivity in mediterranean-climate streams of northern california. Freshw Sci 25(1):32–43Google Scholar
  6. Bonada N, Dolédec S (2018) Does the Tachet trait database report voltinism variability of aquatic insects between Mediterranean and Scandinavian regions? Aquat Sci 80:7.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00027-017-0554-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brinkhurst RO (1986) Guide to the freshwater aquatic microdrile oligochaetes of North America. Departement of fisheries and oceans, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  8. Brosse S, Grenouillet G, Gevrey M, Khazraie K, Tudesque L (2011) Small-scale gold mining erodes fish assemblage structure in small neotropical streams. Biodivers Conserv 20:1013–1026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown JH, Lomolino MV (1998) Biogeography. Sunderland, Massachusettts: Sinauer Press.Magurran AE (2004) Measring biological diversity. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  10. Cai Y, Zhang M, Xu J, Heino J (2018) Geographical gradients in the biodiversity of Chinese freshwater molluscs: implications for conservation. Divers Distrib 24(4).  https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12695
  11. Chao A, Chiu C-H, Jost L (2014) Unifying species diversity, phylogenetic diversity, functional diversity, and related similarity and differentiation measures through hill numbers. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 45:297–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chi S, Gong Y, Wang H, Zheng J, Hu J, Hu J et al (2017) A pilot macroinvertebrate-based multimetric index (MMI-CS) for assessing the ecological status of the Chishui River basin, China. Ecol Indic 83:84–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Clarke KR, Warwick RM (1998) A taxonomic distinctness index and its statistical properties. J Appl Ecol 35:523–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Connolly NM, Crossland MR, Pearson RG (2004) Effect of low dissolved oxygen on survival, emergence, and drift of tropical stream macroinvertebrates. J N Am Benthol Soc 23:251–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dross C, Jiguet F, Tichit M (2017) Concave trade-off curves between crop production and taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity of birds. Ecol Indic 79:83–90.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2017.03.046 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dudgeon D (1999) Tropical Asian streams: zoobenthos, ecology and conservation. University Press, Hong KongGoogle Scholar
  17. Dudgeon D, Arthington AH, Gessner MO, Kawabata Z, Knowler DJ, Leveque C, Naiman RJ, Prieur-Richard AH, Soto D, Stiassny ML, Sullivan CA (2006) Freshwater biodiversity: importance, threats, status and conservation challenges. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 81:163–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Epler JH (2001) Identification manual for the larval Chironomidae (Diptera) of North and South Carolina. St. Johns River Water Management District, PalatkaGoogle Scholar
  19. Feld CK, de Bello F, Dolédec S (2014) Biodiversity of traits and species both show weak responses to hydromorphological alteration in lowland river macroinvertebrates. Freshw Biol 59:233–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fenoglio S, Boano F, Bo T, Revelli R, Ridolfi L (2013) The impacts of increasing current velocity on the drift of Simulium monticola (Diptera: Simuliidae): a laboratory approach. Ital J Zool 80:443–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fournier B, Mouly A, Moretti M, Gillet F (2017) Contrasting processes drive alpha and beta taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity of orthopteran communities in grasslands. Agric Ecosyst Environ 242:43–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gallardo B, Gascón S, Quintana X, Comín FA (2011) How to choose a biodiversity indicator – redundancy and complementarity of biodiversity metrics in a freshwater ecosystem. Ecol Indic 11:1177–1184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. García-García PL, Vázquez G, Novelo-Gutiérrez R, Favila ME (2016) Effects of land use on larval Odonata assemblages in cloud forest streams in central Veracruz, Mexico. Hydrobiologia 785:19–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gerisch M (2015) Non-random patterns of functional redundancy revealed in ground beetle communities facing an extreme flood event. Funct Ecol 28:1504–1512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Giller PS, Malmqvist B (1998) The biology of streams and rivers, 19. Oxford University Press, Oxford 758 ppGoogle Scholar
  26. Heino J (2008) Patterns of functional biodiversity and function–environment relationships in lake littoral macroinvertebrates. Limnol Oceanogr 53:1446–1455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Heino J, Tolonen KT (2017) Untangling the assembly of littoral macroinvertebrate communities through measures of functional and phylogenetic alpha diversity. Freshw Biol 62:1168–1179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Heino J, Schmera D, Eros T (2013) A macroecological perspective of trait patterns in stream communities. Freshw Biol 58:1539–1555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hoiss B, Krauss J, Potts SG, Roberts S, Steffan-Dewenter I (2012) Altitude acts as an environmental filter on phylogenetic composition, traits and diversity in bee communities. Proc Biol Sci 279:4447–4456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hooper DU, Chapin FS, Ewel JJ, Hector A, Inchausti P, Lavorel S, Lawton JH, Lodge DM, Loreau M, Naeem S, Schmid B, Sdtala H, Symstad AJ, Vandermeer J, Wardle ADA (2005) Effects of biodiversity on cosystem functioning: a consensus of current knowledge. Ecol Monogr 75:3–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Huang C, Zhou Z, Wang D, Dian Y (2016) Monitoring forest dynamics with multi-scale and time series imagery. Environ Monit Assess 188:273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jain M, Flynn DF, Prager CM, Hart GM, Devan CM, Ahrestani FS, Palmer MI, Bunker DE, Knops JM, Jouseau CF, Naeem S (2014) The importance of rare species: a trait-based assessment of rare species contributions to functional diversity and possible ecosystem function in tall-grass prairies. Ecol Evol 4:104–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jiang X-M, Xiong J, Qiu J-W, Wu J-M, Wang J-W, Xie Z-C (2010) Structure of macroinvertebrate communities in relation to environmental variables in a subtropical Asian river system. Int Rev Hydrobiol 95:42–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jiang X, Song Z, Xiong J, Xie Z (2014) Can excluding non-insect taxa from stream macroinvertebrate surveys enhance the sensitivity of taxonomic distinctness indices to human disturbance? Ecol Indic 41:175–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. KroGer R, Holland MM, Moore MT, Cooper CM (2007) Hydrological variability and agricultural drainage ditch inorganic nitrogen reduction capacity. J Environ Qual 36(6):1646–1652Google Scholar
  36. Laliberté E, Legendre P (2010) A distance-based framework for measuring functional diversity from multiple traits. Ecology 91:299–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Liu J (1996) Macro-scale survey and dynamic study of natural resources and environment of china by remote sensing. China science and technology press (in Chinese), BeijingGoogle Scholar
  38. Liu Y, Zhang W, Wang Y, Wang E (1979) Freshwater molluscs of Chinese economic fauna. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  39. Mackay RJ (1992) Colonization by lotic macroinvertebrates: a review of processes and patterns. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 49:617–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Madsen PB, Morabowen A, Andino P, Espinosa R, Cauvy-Fraunie S, Dangles O, Jacobsen D (2015) Altitudinal distribution limits of aquatic macroinvertebrates: an experimental test in a tropical alpine stream. Ecol Entomol 40:629–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Magurran AE (2004) Measuring biological diversity. Wiley-BlackwellGoogle Scholar
  42. Mantyka-Pringle CS, Martin TG, Moffatt DB, Linke S, Rhodes JR, Arnott S (2014) Understanding and predicting the combined effects of climate change and land-use change on freshwater macroinvertebrates and fish. J Appl Ecol 51:572–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Márquez JA, Cibils L, Principe RE, Albariño RJ (2015) Stream macroinvertebrate communities change with grassland afforestation in central Argentina. Limnologica 53:17–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mason N, Mouillot D, Lee W, Wilson B (2005) Functional richness, functional evenness and functional divergence: the primary components of functional diversity. Oikos 111:112–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mayfield MM, Bonser SP, Morgan JW, Aubin I, Mcnamara S, Vesk PA (2010) What does species richness tell us about functional trait diversity? Predictions and evidence for responses of species and trait diversity to land use change. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 19:423–431Google Scholar
  46. Morse JC, Yang L, Tian L (1994) Aquatic insects of China useful for monitoring water quality. Houhai university press, NanjingGoogle Scholar
  47. Mouchet MA, Villéger S, Mason NWH, Mouillot D (2010) Functional diversity measures: an overview of their redundancy and their ability to discriminate community assembly rules. Funct Ecol 24:867–876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Münkemüller T, Bello FD, Meynard CN, Gravel D, Lavergne S, Mouillot D, Mouquet N, Thuiller W (2012) From diversity indices to community assembly processes: a test with simulated data. Ecography 35:468–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nelson SM, Lieberman DM (2002) The influence of flow and other environmental factors on benthic invertebrates in the Sacramento River, U.S.A. Hydrobiologia 489:117–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Paula MC, Fonseca-Gessner AA (2010) Macroinvertebrates in low-order streams in two fragments of Atlantic Forest in different states of conservation, in the State of São Paulo (Brazil). Braz J Biol 70:899–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Péru N, Dolédec S (2010) From compositional to functional biodiversity metrics in bioassessment: a case study using stream macroinvertebrate communities. Ecol Indic 10:1025–1036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Poff LR (1997) Landscape filters and species traits: towards mechanistic understanding and prediction in stream ecology. J N Am Benthol Soc 16:391–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Poff LR, Ward JV (1991) Drift responses of benthic invertebrates to experimental streamflow variation in a hydrologically stable stream. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 48:1926–1936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Poff NL, Olden JD, Vieira NKM, Finn DS, Simmons MP, Kondratieff BC (2006) Functional trait niches of North American lotic insects: traits-based ecological applications in light of phylogenetic relationships. J N Am Benthol Soc 25:730–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Purschke O, Schmid BC, Sykes MT, Poschlod P, Michalski SG, Durka W, Kuhn I, Winter M, Prentice HC (2013) Contrasting changes in taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity during a long-term succession: insights into assembly processes. J Ecol 101:857–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Qin H, Wang Y, Zhang F, Chen J, Zhang G, Dong G (2016) Application of species, phylogenetic and functional diversity to the evaluation on the effects of ecological restoration on biodiversity. Ecol Inform 32:53–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rao CR (1982) Diversity and dissimilarity coefficients: a unified approach. Theor Popul Biol 21:24–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Richards C, Haro RJ, Johnson LB, Host GE (1997) Catchment and reach-scale properties as indicators of macroinvertebrate species traits. Freshw Biol 37:219–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Saito VS, Siqueira T, Fonseca-Gessner AA (2015) Should phylogenetic and functional diversity metrics compose macroinvertebrate multimetric indices for stream biomonitoring? Hydrobiologia 745:167–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sala O, III FC, Armesto J, Berlow E, Bloomfield J, Dirzo R, HuberSanwald E, Huenneke L, Jackson R, Kinzig A (2000) Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100. Science 287:1770–1774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schmera D, Heino J, Podani J, Erős T, Dolédec S (2016) Functional diversity: a review of methodology and current knowledge in freshwater macroinvertebrate research. Hydrobiologia 787:27–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Schoen J, Merten E, Wellnitz T (2013) Current velocity as a factor in determining macroinvertebrate assemblages on wood surfaces. J Freshw Ecol 28:271–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Singh JS (2012) Biodiversity: an overview. P Natl A Sci India B 82:239–250Google Scholar
  64. Statzner B, Bonada N, Dolédec S (2007) Conservation of taxonomic and biological trait diversity of European stream macroinvertebrate communities: a case for a collective public database. Biodivers Conserv 16:3609–3632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Stewart JS, Wang L, Lyons J, Horwatich JA, Bannerman R (2001) Influences of watershed, riparian-corridor, and reach-scale characteristics on aquatic biota in agricultural watersheds. J Am Water Resour Assoc 37:1475–1487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Suárez ML, Sánchez-Montoya MM, Gómez R, Arce MI, del Campo R, Vidal-Abarca MR (2016) Functional response of aquatic invertebrate communities along two natural stress gradients (water salinity and flow intermittence) in Mediterranean streams. Aquat Sci 79:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sundqvist MK, Sanders NJ, Wardle dA (2013) Community and ecosystem responses to elevational gradients: processes, mechanisms, and insights for global change. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 44:241–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sweeney BW, Bott TL, Jackson JK, Kaplan LA, Newbold JD, Standley LJ, Hession WC, Horwitz RJ (2004) Riparian deforestation, stream narrowing, and loss of stream ecosystem services. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:14132–14137Google Scholar
  69. Taranu ZE, Gregoryeaves I (2008) Quantifying relationships among phosphorus, agriculture, and lake depth at an inter-regional scale. Ecosystems 11(5):715–725Google Scholar
  70. Thukral AK (2017) A review on measurement of Alpha diversity in biology. Agric Res J 54:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tolonen KT, Vilmi A, Karjalainen SM, Hellsten S, Heino J (2017) Do different facets of littoral macroinvertebrate diversity show congruent patterns in a large lake system? Community Ecol 18:109–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tran CP, Bode RW, Smith AJ, Kleppel GS (2010) Land-use proximity as a basis for assessing stream water quality in New York State (USA). Ecol Indic 10(3):727–733Google Scholar
  73. Vaughn CC (2010) Biodiversity losses and ecosystem function in freshwaters: emerging conclusions and research directions. Bioscience 60:25–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Villéger S, Mason NW, Mouillot D (2008) New multidimensional functional diversity indices for a multifaceted framework in functional ecology. Ecology 89:2290–2301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Warwick RM, Clarke KR (1998) Taxonomic distinctness and environment assessment. J Appl Ecol 35:532–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Webb CO, Ackerly DD, McPeek MA, Donoghue MJ (2002) Phylogenies and community ecology. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 33:475–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wei FS, Kou HR, Hong SJ (1989) Methods for the examination of water and wastewater. China environmental Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  78. Wu J, Huang J, Han X, Xie Z, Gao X (2003) Three-Gorges dam--experiment in habitat fragmentation? Science 300:1239–1240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Zhang Y, Wen A, Yan D, Guo J, Ju Z (2014) Using137 Cs technique to study soil erosion in Chishui river region. Earth Environ 42:187–192Google Scholar
  80. Zhou C, Gui H, Zhou K (2003) Larval key to families of Ephemeroptera from China (Insecta). J Nanjing Agr Univ 26:65–68Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jun Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xiaoming Jiang
    • 1
  • Zhengfei Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xingliang Meng
    • 1
  • Jani Heino
    • 3
  • Zhicai Xie
    • 1
  • Xiaoming Wang
    • 4
  • Jiang Yu
    • 4
  1. 1.The Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation, Institute of HydrobiologyChinese Academy of SciencesWuhanChina
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Biodiversity CentreFinnish Environment InstituteOuluFinland
  4. 4.China Three Gorges Projects Development Co., LtdChengduChina

Personalised recommendations