Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 34, pp 34164–34180 | Cite as

Effective reduction of metronidazole over the cryptomelane-type manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (K-OMS-2) catalyst: facile synthesis, experimental design and modeling, statistical analysis, and identification of by-products

  • Ebrahim Mohammadi Kalhori
  • Esmaeil Ghahramani
  • Tariq J. Al-Musawi
  • Hossien Najafi Saleh
  • Mohammad Noori Sepehr
  • Mansur ZarrabiEmail author
Research Article


High concentrations of antibiotic compounds within pharmaceutical wastewater have hazardous impacts toward environment and human health. Therefore, there is an immediate requirement of efficient treatment method for removal of antibiotics from aquatic environment. In the present study, the cryptomelane catalyst-type manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (K-OMS-2) was synthesized in the presence of benzyl alcohol as a reducing agent and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as a structure-directing agent and then utilized to reduce the metronidazole. The central composite design method was the experimental design adopted. The FESEM analysis revealed that the K-OMS-2 surface contained many uniformly cylindrical aggregates less than about 40 nm in diameter and about 80–100 nm in length. Besides, a high specific surface area of 129 m2/g and average pore size of 45.47 nm were recorded. According to the TGA/DTA analysis, the prepared catalyst revealed high thermal stability. The maximum metronidazole degradation (95.36%) was evident at conditions of pH = 3, catalyst mass = 0.97 g/L, contact time = 200 min, and metronidazole concentration = 20 mg/L. Metronidazole did not form a complex with nitrate, fluoride, sulfate, or hardness. These ions exerted a negligible effect on metronidazole reduction using the K-OMS-2 catalyst, except for hardness, which reduced the removal efficiency of metronidazole by 17%. The FTIR and LC-MS revealed a complex mechanism involved in the metronidazole degradation by the K-OMS-2 involving the formation of an amino group, a hydroxyelated compound via N-denitration, and hydrogenation process on the K-OMS-2 catalyst surface.


K-OMS-2 catalyst Pharmaceuticals removal Wastewater Central composite design Interfering ions 


Funding information

The authors are grateful to the Alborz University of Medical Sciences for the financial support made available to them for this research.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ebrahim Mohammadi Kalhori
    • 1
  • Esmaeil Ghahramani
    • 2
  • Tariq J. Al-Musawi
    • 3
  • Hossien Najafi Saleh
    • 4
  • Mohammad Noori Sepehr
    • 1
  • Mansur Zarrabi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Research Center for Health, Safety and Environment, Faculty of HealthAlborz University of Medical SciencesKarajIran
  2. 2.Environmental Health Research Center, Research Institute for Health DevelopmentKurdistan University of Medical SciencesSanandajIran
  3. 3.Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringIsra UniversityAmmanJordan
  4. 4.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of HealthTorbat Heydariyeh University of Medical SciencesTorbat HeydariehIran

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