Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 34, pp 34277–34293 | Cite as

A response surface methodology for optimization of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid removal from synthetic and drainage water: a comparative study

  • Mohammad Javad AmiriEmail author
  • Mehdi Bahrami
  • Bahareh Beigzadeh
  • Antonio Gil
Research Article


The potential of a granular activated carbon (GAC), a rice husk biochar (BRH), and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for removing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) from simulated wastewater and drainage water has been evaluated. In this regard, a response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite design (CCD) (CCD-RSM design) was used to optimize the removal of 2,4-D from simulated wastewater under different operational parameters. The maximum adsorption capacities followed the order GAC > BRH > MWCNTs, whereas the equilibrium time increased in the order MWCNTs < GAC < BRH. In the case of GAC and BRH, the 2,4-D removal percentage increased significantly upon increasing the adsorbent dosage and temperature and decreased upon increasing the initial 2,4-D concentration and pH. The results showed that the contact time and temperature were not important as regards the adsorption efficiency of 2,4-D by MWCNTs, whereas rapid removal of 2,4-D from simulated wastewater was achieved within the first 5 min of contact with the MWCNTs. The results confirmed that the Freundlich isotherm model with the highest coefficient of determination (R2) and the lowest standard error of the estimate (SEE) satisfactorily fitted the 2,4-D experimental data. In addition, successful usage of the three adsorbents investigated was observed for removal of 2,4-D from drainage water from an agricultural drainage system. An economic analysis with a rate of return (ROR) method indicated that BRH could be used as an eco-friendly, low-cost, versatile, and high adsorption capacity alternative to GAC and MWCNTs for the removal of 2,4-D.


2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid adsorption Central composite design Response surface methodology Drainage water Rate of return method 



AG is grateful for the financial support from Santander Bank through the Research Intensification Program.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Javad Amiri
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mehdi Bahrami
    • 1
  • Bahareh Beigzadeh
    • 1
  • Antonio Gil
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Water Engineering, College of AgricultureFasa UniversityFasaIran
  2. 2.INAMAT-Department of Sciences, Campus of ArrosadiaPublic University of NavarraPamplonaSpain

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