Genotoxicity of water samples from an area of the Pampean region (Argentina) impacted by agricultural and livestock activities
The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic potential of surface waters located in a rural area in the north east of Buenos Aires province (Argentina) using the Allium cepa test. Water samples were collected at four sites located in a drainage channel and two sites on the Burgos stream that receives water from the channel, taking into account the sowing and harvesting months and rainfall periods. Analytical determinations revealed high total concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn (maximum values: 0.030, 0.252, 0.176, and 0.960 mg L−1, respectively), and concentrations of glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), with maximum values of 13.6 and 9.75 μg L−1, respectively. Statistically positive correlations were observed between the total metal concentrations and precipitation. No cytotoxicity (mitotic index MI) was observed in A. cepa. However, several water samples showed significant increases in micronucleus (MN) frequencies with respect to the controls. No correlations were observed between MN and the abiotic variables or precipitation. These results showed a state of deterioration in the water quality at the rural area studied in Buenos Aires province, and heavy metal contamination may contribute to the genotoxic activity. A. cepa was shown to be a useful tool for the detection of genotoxicity in water samples from areas with agricultural and livestock activities.
KeywordsAllium cepa Chromosome aberration Micronucleous Aquatic toxicology Genotoxicity Heavy metals
The authors are grateful to Mrs. Amalia Gonzalez for the artwork of the Burgos stream basin, and Mr. Ricardo J. Piccolo for kindly providing the Allium cepa seeds for performing the genotoxicity assay.
This study was supported financially by the Buenos Aires University, Argentina, under Projects UBACyT No. 20020130100601BA and 20020150200116BA.
- APHA-AWWA-WPCF (2012) American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 22nd edn. USAGoogle Scholar
- Fergusson J (1990) The heavy elements. Chemistry, environmetal impact and health effects. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 175–182Google Scholar
- Kraemer FB, Chagas CI, Irurtia C, Garibaldi LA (2011) Bacterial retention in three soils of the Rolling Pampa, Argentina, under simulated rainfall. J Soil Sci Environ Manage 2(11):341–353Google Scholar
- Mackereth F, Heron J, Talling J (1989) Water analysis: some revised methods for limnologists, 2nd edn. Freshwater Biological Association, Cumbria Scientific publication No. 36Google Scholar
- Manassero M, Camilión C, Ronco A (2004) Análisis textural de sedimentos fluviales distales de arroyos de la pampa ondulada, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Asociación Argentina de Sedimentología 11(2):57–68Google Scholar
- Matsumoto ST, Mantovani MS, Malagutti MIA, Dias AL, Fonseca IC, Marin-Morales MA (2006) Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of water contaminated with tannery effluents, as evaluated by the micronucleus test and comet assay using the fish Oreochromis niloticus and chromosome aberrations in onion root-tips. Genet Mol 29:148–158Google Scholar
- Mendoza RE, García IV, de Cabo L, Weigandt CF, Fabrizio de Iorio A (2015) The interaction of heavy metals and nutrients present in soil and native plants with arbuscular mycorrhizae on the riverside in the Matanza-Riachuelo River Basin (Argentina). Sci Total Environ 505:555–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rank J, Jensen AG, Skov B, Pedersen LH, Jensen K (1993) Genotoxicity testing of the herbicide roundup and its active ingredient glyphosate isopropylamine using the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test, Salmonella mutagenicity test, and Allium anaphase-telophase test. Mutat Res 300:29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sprankle P, Meggitt WF, Penner D (1975) Adsorption, mobility and microbial degradation of glyphosate in the soil. Weed Sci 23:229–234Google Scholar
- Strickland J, Parsons T (1972) A practical handbook of seawater analysis, 2nd edn. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa Bulletin No. 167Google Scholar
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2009) National recommended water quality crieteria 4304T, http://www.epa.gov/ost/criteria/wqctable