Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 34, pp 34448–34459 | Cite as

Quantitative analysis of the coupling coefficients between energy flow, value flow, and material flow in a Chinese lead-acid battery system

  • Yanxu Yu
  • Yao Song
  • Jiansu Mao
Research Article
  • 103 Downloads

Abstract

To reveal the historic characteristics of the material flow, energy flow and value flow in a lead-acid battery (LAB) system, a framework for the coupling relationship among the three flows was established based on material flow analysis and the characteristics of the energy and value flows. The coupling coefficients between energy and material (CCEM) and value and material (CCVM) were also defined. The investigation used by China as a case to study changes in stages and the historic evolution. The results show that the CCEM for lead in LABs was highest in the usage stage, approximately 5–16 times greater than in the other stages. The CCEM for production was almost twice as high for primary lead as for secondary lead, and the CCEM was lowest for the fabrication and product manufacture stage. The CCVM for lead in LABs was 2.5–6 times higher than for other types of lead. The CCVM was lower for scrap lead than for lead ore, and the CCVM was approximately 1.7 times higher for refined lead than for scrap and refined lead. For lead trade, CCVM was correlated with domestic and overseas markets. From 1990 to 2014, the CCEM for each stage was in decline, whereas the opposite was the case for CCVM. The influencing factors were analyzed in terms of resources, the environment, and markets. Increasing the circulation rate of scrap lead is an effective way to rapidly save resources, reduce lead pollution, and promote a circular economy. The limitations and potential value of the study are also highlighted, and future research is outlined.

Keywords

Coupling coefficient Carrier Lifecycle Historical evolution Circulation rate Circular economy 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank International Science Editing (http://www.internationalscienceediting.com) for editing this manuscript.

Funding information

This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China under grant no. 2016YFC0502802

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

References

  1. Bai L, Qiao Q, Li YP et al (2015) Substance flow analysis of production process: a case study of a lead smelting process. J Clean Prod 104:502–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bai B-Y, Hu X-W, Li Y-P et al (2016) Present situation, problems and countermeasures of the secondary lead industry in China. Environ Eng 05(34):126–130 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  3. Bai L, Xie MH, Zhang Y et al (2017) Pollution prevention and control measures for the bottom blowing furnace of a lead-smelting process, based on a mathematical model and simulation. J Clean Prod 159:432–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bates A, Mukerjee S, Lee SC et al (2014) An analysis study of a lead-acid battery as an energy storage system. J Power Sources 249:207–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cai JJ, Wang JJ, Lu ZW et al (2006) Material flow and energy flow in iron & steel Industry and correlation between them. J Northeastern Univ 27(9):979–982 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  6. Cai JJ, Ye Z, Sun WQ (2013) Analysis of influence factor on energy consumption in Chinese steel industry from 1995 to 2010. J Northeastern Univ 34(10):1438–1442 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  7. Chen Z-X, Zhang Y-J, Song Y-L et al (2016) The analysis of current situation and development trend of secondary lead. Chinese LABAT Man 53(02):96–100 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  8. China Automotive Technology & Research Centre (CATRC), China Association of Automobile Manufactures (CAAM) et al (1999-2011) China automotive industry yearbook 1999-2011. China Association of Automobile Manufactures Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  9. China Battery Industry Association (CBIA) (2010) China battery industry yearbook 2010. China Statistics Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  10. China Nonferrous Metals Industry Association (CNMIA) (1995-2015) The yearbook of nonferrous metals industry of China (1991–2015), China Nonferrous Metals Industry Yearbook Press, Beijing.(in Chinese)Google Scholar
  11. Dai T, Wen B-J, Liang J (2017) A tentative discussion on the law of lead consumption and a prediction of China’s lead demand. Acta Geosci Sin 38(1):61–68 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  12. Du T, Cai J-J (2006) Study on material, energy, pollutant flows for iron and steel enterprise. Iron Steel 41(4):82–87 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  13. Feng C-J (1997) Lead market review in 1996 and prospect in 1997. World Nonferrous Metals 3:17–19 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  14. Feng C-J (1999) Review of lead and zinc market at domestic and abroad and recent trend analysis. World Nonferrous Metals 8:29–35 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  15. Gu J-N, Zhang X-Y, Han J-X (2017) Global lead resources situation and the development of lead resources in China. China Min Mag 26(2):16–20 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  16. He HC, Guan HJ, Zhu X et al (2017) Assessment on the energy and carbon emissions of intergrated steelmaking plants. Energy Reports 3:29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. International Lead and Zinc Study Group (ILZSG) (2013, 2014) Review and outlook for Cooper, Nickel, Lead and Zinc, London. http://www.ilzsg.org/static/statistics.aspx?from=1
  18. Kamila B, Zdenka W, Jaroslav D, Magdaléna Z (2015) The material flows of lead in the Czech Republic. Resour Conserv Recycl 9:1–8Google Scholar
  19. Liang J, Mao JS (2014) A historical analysis of environmental losses from anthropogenic lead flow and their accumulation in China. Trans Nonferrous Metals Soc China 24(4):1125–1133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liang J, Mao JS (2015) Source analysis of global anthropogenic lead emissions: their quantities and species. Environ Sci Pol R22:7129–7138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liang J, Mao JS (2016) Risk assessment of lead emissions from anthropogenic cycle. Trans Nonferrous Metals Soc China 16:248–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Liu Y-J (2009) Dynamic changes in energy efficiency and energy prices. J Yangzhou Univ 13(4):94–101 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  23. Liu LR, Lu ZW, Yu QB et al (2002) Analysis of comprehensive energy consumption for producing alumina. Chinese J Nonferrous Metals 12(6):1294–1298 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  24. Liu W, Sang J, Chen LJ et al (2015) Life cycle assessment of lead-acid batteries used in electric bicycles in China. J Clean Prod 108:1149–1156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Liu P, Li BK, Cheung Sherman CP, Wu WY (2016a) Material and energy flows in rotary kiln-electric furnace smelting of ferronickel alloy with energy saving. Applied Therm Eng 109:542–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Liu W, Chen LJ, Tian JP (2016b) Uncovering the evolution of Lead in-use stocks in Lead-acid batteries and the impact on future lead metabolism in China. Environ Sci Technol 50:5412–5419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Liu W, Tian JP, Chen LJ et al (2017) Historical and spatial characteristics of lead emissions from the lead-acid battery manufacturing industry in China. Environ Pollut 220:696–703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ma Z-H, Fan Z-L (2011) Domestic lead resources and related suggestions. China Metal Bulletin 33:22–21 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  29. Ma L, Mao J-S (2014a) Quantitative analysis on the changes in anthropogenic lead flow of China. Environ Sci 35(7):2829–2833 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  30. Ma L, Mao J-S (2014b) The reasons for the changes in anthropogenic lead flow of China. Environ Sci 35(8):3210–3224 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  31. Mao JS (2016) Anthropogenic flow of lead. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  32. Mao J-S, Lu Z-W (2003) The material circular flow and value circular flow. J Mater Metall 2(2):157–160 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  33. Mao J-S, Lu Z-W (2006) The lead flow analysis for lead-acid battery system. Environ Sci 27(3):43–48 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  34. Mao JS, Ma L (2012) Analysis of current policies on lead usage in China. Int J Biol Sci Eng 3(4):234–245Google Scholar
  35. Mao JS, Lu ZW, Yang ZF (2004) Several benefits from recycling of industrial materials. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Conference for Young Scientists of China Association for Science and Technology. Nov.2-5. Shanghai, China. 489–498Google Scholar
  36. Mao JS, Ying ZW, Lu ZW (2008) The influence of recycling of material on value source intensity. Proceedings of information technology and environmental system sciences, ITESS’2008 (Part 2). 1078–1084Google Scholar
  37. Mao JS, Dong J, Graedel TE (2008a) The multilevel cycle of anthropogenic lead I: methodology. Resour Conserv Recycl 52:1058–1064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mao JS, Dong J, Graedel TE (2008b) The multilevel cycle of anthropogenic lead II: results and discussion. Resour Conserv Recycl 52:1050–1057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mao JS, Liang J, Ma L (2014) Changes in the functions, species and locations of lead during its anthropogenic flows to provide services. Trans Nonferrous Metals Soc China 24(1):233–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mao JS, Li CH, Pei YY, Yu LY (2018) Circular economy and sustainable development enterprises, 1st edn. Springer Singapore, Singapore, pp 103–126Google Scholar
  41. McConnell JR, Wen BJ, Liang J et al (2014) Antarctic-wide array of high-resolution ice core records reveals pervasive lead pollution began in 1889 and persists today. Sci Rep 4:1–5Google Scholar
  42. Meng Y-J, Bai C, Wang S (2016) Design of a battery charge and discharge efficiency test system. J Shanxi Univ Sci Technol 34(1):154–158 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  43. Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China (MEPPRC) (2011) List of Lead Accumulator Production, Assembly and Recovery (Secondary Lead) Enterprises, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  44. National Bureau of Statistics of the People’s Republic of China (NBSPRC) (1991-2015) Annual statistical bulletin of China. Beijing:China Statistic Press, Beijing. http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/tjgb/ndtjgb/
  45. People’s Republic of China Development and Reform Commission (PRCDRC), People’s Republic of China Ministry of Science and Technology (PRCMST) et al (2006) Automotive product recycling technology policy. http://www.gov.cn/jrzg/2006-02/14/content_191122.htm
  46. Ren L-M, Wang Z-G, Zheng L (2013) The current situation and the management strategy for generating, recycling and treatment of social sourced hazardous wastes. Chin J Environ Manage 5(2):59–64 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  47. Shao Q-S, Yan W, Li A-J et al (2017) Development, present status and applications of lead-acid battery. Chin J Nat 39(4):258–264 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  48. Standing Committee of the Eighth National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China (SCENPCPRC) (1997) Energy conservation law in People’s Republic of China. Beijing.(in Chinese)Google Scholar
  49. Standing Committee of the Tenth National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China (ACTNPCPRC) (2007) Energy conservation law in People’s Republic of China. Beijing. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  50. Su YJ (2016) Global lead resource supply and demand situation analysis. Chin Econ Trade Herald 20:6–9 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  51. Sun MY, Mao JS (2017) Quantitative analysis of the Spatio-temporal evolution of the anthropogenic transfer of lead in China. J Ind Ecol 1–11Google Scholar
  52. Tian X, Gong Y, Wu YF et al (2014) Management of used lead acid battery in China: secondary lead industry progress, policies and problems. Resour Conserv Recycl 93:75–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tian X, Wu YF, Hou P et al (2017) Environmental impact and economic assessment of secondary lead production: comparison of main spent lead-acid battery recycling processes in China. J Clean Prod 144:142–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tianjin Municipal Administration of quality and technology supervision (2011) Calculation method and stipulation of comprehensive energy consumption norm for per unit product of all industries in Tianjin (DB 12/046.01-2011) Tianjin. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  55. United States Geological Survey (USGS) (2015) Lead and zinc. Mineral Commodity Summaries, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  56. Wang FL (2014) Lead-acid battery market application and future prospects in China. Chinese LABAT Man 51(4):171–178 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  57. Wang CY, Gao W, Yin F (2012) Lead smelting technology domestic and abroad and its developing trend. Nonferrous Met (Extractive Met) 04:1–5 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  58. World Bureau of Metal Statistic (WMS) (2015) Lead and zinc, yearbook of world metal statistic. World Bureau of Metal Statistics, United KingdomGoogle Scholar
  59. Xu B (2015) Structure process improvement and performance testing for lead-acid battery. Dissertation, Zhejiang University of Technology (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  60. Yan LY, Wang AJ (2014) Based on material flow analysis: value chain analysis of China iron resources. Resour Conserv Recycl 91:52–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yang L (2015) Impact and promotion of consumption tax on battery industry. Chin J Lead and Zinc 2:47–49 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  62. Yang XJ, Hu HJ, Tan TW et al (2016) China’s renewable energy goals by 2050. Environ Dev 20:83–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Yin J-P, Tan G, Yang Y-S (2015) Current situation of lead and zinc resource reserve in China and discussion on exploration and development measures. China Metal Bulletion 33:79–81Google Scholar
  64. Yu L-H, Sun J, Chen G-S (2006) Perspective China’s energy structure. Nat Resour Econ China 7:7–9 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  65. Zhang JY (1998) Eight years of lead-acid battery industry review and recommendations. Chin Bat Ind 4:116–118 (in Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of EnvironmentBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations