Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 31, pp 31752–31761 | Cite as

Levels, distribution, and sources of organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers in urban soils of Shenyang, China

  • Qing LuoEmail author
  • Yue Shan
  • Adeel Muhammad
  • Shiyu Wang
  • Lina Sun
  • Hui Wang
Research Article


Seventy-four soil samples from the road greenbelts, residential areas, drylands, waste grasslands, education lands, industrial areas, city parks, and rural homesteads of Shenyang city, China, were collected and analyzed for 13 organophosphate esters (OPEs). OPEs were detected in all analyzed soil samples, which indicate that OPEs are ubiquitously environmental contaminants. The ∑13OPEs concentrations ranged from 0.039 to 0.95 mg/kg dry weight (dw), with the mean and median concentrations of 0.23 and 0.16 mg/kg dw, respectively. The pollution levels of OPEs in different land use types were different; the concentrations of OPEs in dryland soils were maximum and in city park soils were minimum. Of 13 OPEs, tri-iso-butyl phosphate (TiBP), tris-(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), tri-butoxyethyl phosphate (TBEP), and tris[2-chloro-1-(chloromethyl) ethyl] phosphate (TDCP) were the most abundant OPEs, contributing 42.0 ± 12.8, 12.4 ± 2.32, 6.31 ± 1.88, and 5.76 ± 1.86% of ∑13OPEs, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) suggested that OPE pollution in soils may be derived from atmospheric deposition, road runoff and vehicular traffic emission, and wastewater/reclaimed water irrigation and sludge application, their contributions were accounting for 62.4, 17.6, and 20.0%, respectively. As compared to the results from other studies, the pollution of OPEs in the urban soils of Shenyang is relatively serious.


Organophosphate esters Distribution Sources Soil Shenyang 


Funding information

This study was financially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Liaoning Province (NO. 20170520384), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation funded project (NO. 2018M630304), and the National Program on Key Basic Research Project of China (973 Program) (NO. 2014CB441100). The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qing Luo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yue Shan
    • 1
  • Adeel Muhammad
    • 2
  • Shiyu Wang
    • 1
  • Lina Sun
    • 1
  • Hui Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Regional Environment and Eco-Remediation of Ministry of Education, College of EnvironmentShenyang UniversityShenyangChina
  2. 2.Beijing Key Laboratory of Farmland Soil Pollution Prevention and Remediation, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences|China Agricultural UniversityBeijingChina

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