Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 30, pp 30680–30695 | Cite as

Rarasaponin-bentonite-activated biochar from durian shells composite for removal of crystal violet and Cr(VI) from aqueous solution

  • Livy Laysandra
  • Felix Harijaya Santosa
  • Vic Austen
  • Felycia Edi SoetaredjoEmail author
  • Kuncoro Foe
  • Jindrayani Nyoo Putro
  • Yi-Hsu Ju
  • Suryadi IsmadjiEmail author
Research Article


This paper presents the preparation of composite material and its application for the adsorption of crystal violet and Cr(VI) from aqueous solution onto acid-activated bentonite (AAB) and rarasaponin–bentonite-activated biochar from durian shells composite (RBAB). The influence of initial pH of the solution and the temperature of adsorption on the adsorbents adsorption performance was also studied. Langmuir and Freundlich models could represent the adsorption equilibria equally well. Thermodynamic parameters such as ∆G°, ∆H°, and ∆S° were evaluated based on the adsorption isotherms. The values of ∆G°, ∆H°, and ∆S° for crystal violet adsorption system demonstrate behavior contrary to the Cr(VI) adsorption system. Where crystal violet adsorption is preferred at high temperatures with qmax, value is 518.64 mg/L; while adsorption Cr(VI) is better at low temperature with qmax, value is 106.30 mg/L. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models could represent the kinetic data well.


Rarasaponin Raw durian Biochar Composite Isotherms Kinetics Adsorption 



Financial support is from the Ministry of Research and Technology and Higher Education through competency grant 2018.

Supplementary material

11356_2018_3104_MOESM1_ESM.docx (405 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 404 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Livy Laysandra
    • 1
  • Felix Harijaya Santosa
    • 1
  • Vic Austen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Felycia Edi Soetaredjo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kuncoro Foe
    • 3
  • Jindrayani Nyoo Putro
    • 4
  • Yi-Hsu Ju
    • 5
  • Suryadi Ismadji
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringWidya Mandala Surabaya Catholic UniversitySurabayaIndonesia
  2. 2.Intan Permata HatiSurabayaIndonesia
  3. 3.Widya Mandala Surabaya Catholic UniversitySurabayaIndonesia
  4. 4.Department of Chemical EngineeringNational Taiwan University of Science and TechnologyTaipei CityTaiwan
  5. 5.Graduate Institute of Applied Science and TechnologyNational Taiwan University of Science and TechnologyTaipei CityTaiwan

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