Remediation potential of caffeine, oxybenzone, and triclosan by the salt marsh plants Spartina maritima and Halimione portulacoides
- 119 Downloads
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have attracted increasing concern during the last decade because of their widespread uses and continuous release to the aquatic environment. This work aimed to study the distribution of caffeine (CAF), oxybenzone (MBPh), and triclosan (TCS) when they arrive in salt marsh areas and to assess their remediation potential by two different species of salt marsh plants: Spartina maritima and Halimione portulacoides. Experiments were carried out in the laboratory either in hydroponics (sediment elutriate) or in sediment soaked in elutriate, for 10 days. Controls without plants were also carried out. CAF, MBPh, and TCS were added to the media. In unvegetated sediment soaked in elutriate, CAF was mainly in the liquid phase (83%), whereas MBPh and TCS were in the solid phase (90% and 56%, respectively); the highest remediation was achieved for TCS (40%) and mainly attributed to bioremediation. The presence of plants in sediment soaked in elutriate-enhanced PPCPs remediation, decreasing CAF and TCS levels between approximately 20-30% and MBPh by 40%.. Plant uptake, adsorption to plant roots/sediments, and bio/rhizoremediation are strong hypothesis to explain the decrease of contaminants either in water or sediment fractions, according to PPCPs characteristics.
KeywordsPharmaceutical and personal care compounds Phytoremediation Sediment Water Salt marsh area
N. Couto and P. Guedes acknowledge Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia for their Post-Doc fellowships, SFRH/BPD/81122/2011 and SFRH/BPD/114660/2016, respectively.
This study received financial support provided by 4KET4Reuse (SOE1/P1/E0253) and CEMOWAS (SOE2/P5/F0505), co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER) and by FCT/MEC through grants UID/AMB/04085/2013, Research unit CENSE “Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research.
- Archer E, Petrie B, Kasprzyk-Hordern B, Wolfaardt GM (2017) The fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), endocrine disrupting contaminants (EDCs), metabolites and illicit drugs in a WWTW and environmental waters. Chem 174:437–446. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.01.101 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Caçador I, Duarte B (2012) Tagus estuary salt marsh structure and dynamics: a historical perspective. In: Jordan SJ (ed) Estuaries: classification, ecology and human impacts. Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, p 41–56Google Scholar
- Dordio AV, Duarte C, Barreiros M, Carvalho AJP, Pinto AP, da Costa CT (2009) Toxicity and removal efficiency of pharmaceutical metabolite clofibric acid by Typha spp. – potential use for phytoremediation? Bioresour Technol 100:1156–1161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2008.08.034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gogoi A, Mazumder P, Tyagi VK, et al (2018) Occurrence and fate of emerging contaminants in water environment: A review. Groundw Sustain Dev 6:169–180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsd.2017.12.009
- Hijosa-Valsero M, Matamoros V, Sidrach-Cardona R, Martín-Villacorta J, Bécares E, Bayona JM (2010b) Comprehensive assessment of the design configuration of constructed wetlands for the removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products from urban wastewaters. Water Res 44:3669–3678. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2010.04.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Klosterhaus SL, Grace R, Hamilton MC, Yee D (2013) Method validation and reconnaissance of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and alkylphenols in surface waters, sediments, and mussels in an urban estuary. Environ Int 54:92–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2013.01.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lichtenthaler H, Wellburn A (1983) Determinations of total carotenoids and chlorophylls a and b of leaf extracts in different solvents. Meeting, Liverpool, 11Google Scholar
- Mesa J, Rodríguez-Llorente ID, Pajuelo E, Piedras JMB, Caviedes MA, Redondo-Gómez S, Mateos-Naranjo E (2015) Moving closer towards restoration of contaminated estuaries: bioaugmentation with autochthonous rhizobacteria improves metal rhizoaccumulation in native Spartina maritima. J Hazard Mater 300:263–271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.07.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pi N, Ng JZ, Kelly BC (2017) Bioaccumulation of pharmaceutically active compounds and endocrine disrupting chemicals in aquatic macrophytes: results of hydroponic experiments with Echinodorus horemanii and Eichhornia crassipes. Sci Total Environ 601:812–820. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.05.137 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ratola N, Cincinelli A, Alves A, Katsoyiannis A (2012) Occurrence of organic microcontaminants in the wastewater treatment process. A mini review. J Hazard Mater 239–240:1–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.05.040
- Stevens KJ, Kim S-Y, Adhikari S, Vadapalli V, Venables BJ (2009) Effects of triclosan on seed germination and seedling development of three wetland plants: Sesbania herbacea, Eclipta prostrata, and Bidens frondosa. Environ Toxicol Chem 28:2598–2609. https://doi.org/10.1897/08-566.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhao C, Xie H, Xu J, Xu X, Zhang J, Hu Z, Liu C, Liang S, Wang Q, Wang J (2015) Bacterial community variation and microbial mechanism of triclosan (TCS) removal by constructed wetlands with different types of plants. Sci Total Environ 505:633–639. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.10.053 CrossRefGoogle Scholar