Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 30, pp 30517–30546 | Cite as

Applying analytical decision methods for determination of the best treatment alternative to remove emerging micropollutants from drinking water and wastewater: triclosan example

  • Emrah OzturkEmail author
Research Article


Increasing human activities have not only substantially altered the natural material cycle but also created new synthetic chemicals flows. Some of these chemicals, which are described as micropollutants (MPs), may result in adverse effects on human health, aquatic organisms, and ecosystems. MPs can be transported to the environment and water resources in a variety ways including domestic and industrial wastewater. Unfortunately, most MPs are only partially removed in existing conventional treatment plants. Therefore, conventional treatment plants should be modernized by advanced treatment technologies to protect the environment and human health. However, there are various mysteries about best treatment techniques, evaluation criteria, and decision-making methods. In this study, it was aimed to determine the best treatment alternatives for triclosan (TCS) which is one of the priority MPs. A total of 18 evaluation criteria were identified and prioritized by employing analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and entropy methods. Treatment alternatives were identified and their performance was assessed through a comprehensive literature investigation. In decision-making processes of determining these alternatives, “technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS),” “preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE),” and “Višekriterijumsko kompromisno rangiranje (VIKOR)” analytical decision-making methods were employed, and priority rankings were determined according to each decision method. The final priority ranking was found as adsorption > membrane filtration > hybrid processes > advanced oxidation processes > constructed wetlands > conventional treatment processes > biological treatment > other treatment processes. Although the obtained results are specific to TCS, the employed analytical decision methods can be also used to decide the best treatment alternatives for other MPs.


Drinking water Micropollutant PROMETHEE Treatment Triclosan TOPSIS VIKOR Wastewater 


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental EngineeringSuleyman Demirel UniversityIspartaTurkey

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