Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 32, pp 31957–31970 | Cite as

Future intensification of summer hypoxia in the tidal Garonne River (SW France) simulated by a coupled hydro sedimentary-biogeochemical model

  • Katixa Lajaunie-SallaEmail author
  • Aldo Sottolichio
  • Sabine Schmidt
  • Xavier Litrico
  • Guillaume Binet
  • Gwenaël Abril
Review Article


Projections for the next 50 years predict a widespread distribution of hypoxic zones in the open and coastal ocean due to environmental and global changes. The Tidal Garonne River (SW France) has already experienced few episodic hypoxic events. However, predicted future climate and demographic changes suggest that summer hypoxia could become more severe and even permanent near the city of Bordeaux in the next few decades. A 3D model, which couples hydrodynamic, sediment transport, and biogeochemical processes, is applied to assess the impact of factors submitted to global and regional climate changes on oxygenation in the turbidity maximum zone (TMZ) of the Tidal Garonne River during low-discharge periods. The model simulates an intensification of summer hypoxia with an increase in temperature, a decrease in river flow or an increase in the local population, but not with sea level rise, which has a negligible impact on dissolved oxygen. Different scenarios were tested by combining these different factors according to the regional projections for 2050 and 2100. All the simulations showed a trend toward a spatial and temporal extension of summer hypoxia that needs to be considered by local water authorities to impose management strategies to protect the ecosystem.


Future changes Hypoxia Modeling Tidal Garonne river Wastewater Water quality 



dissolved oxygen


dissolved organic carbon


organic matter


particulate organic carbon


suspended sediment concentration


sewage overflow


Tidal Garonne River


turbidity maximum zone






wastewater treatment plant



The authors are grateful to the MAGEST network for the availability of data and to the SGAC and Bordeaux Metropole for providing urban effluent data and fruitful discussions.

Funding information

This study was funded by the Aquitaine Region (DIAGIR project) and LyRE (SUEZ research center) who co-sponsored a PhD grant to K. Lajaunie-Salla. This work was also supported by the Cluster of Excellence COTE at the Université de Bordeaux (ANR-10-LABX-45). This work was supported by the Avakas cluster resources of the Mésocentre de Calcul Intensif Aquitain (MCIA) of the University of Bordeaux.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katixa Lajaunie-Salla
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Aldo Sottolichio
    • 1
  • Sabine Schmidt
    • 1
  • Xavier Litrico
    • 2
  • Guillaume Binet
    • 2
  • Gwenaël Abril
    • 1
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Laboratoire EPOC, UMR CNRS 5805Université de BordeauxPessacFrance
  2. 2.LyRESUEZ Research CenterBordeauxFrance
  3. 3.Aix Marseille Université, CNRS/INSU, Université de Toulon, IRD, Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO) UM 110MarseilleFrance
  4. 4.Departamento de GeoquímicaUniversidade Federal FluminenseNiteróiBrazil
  5. 5.Biologie des Organismes et Ecosystèmes Aquatiques (BOREA)Muséum National d’Histoire NaturelleParisFrance

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